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Internet Book of Shadows, (Various Authors), [1999], at

                                    COVEN OFFICES 
     Leadership in a mixed coven: 
     1.  High Priestess - Coordinates ritual leadership, counseling,  
     teaching, and administration duties, in company with the High  
     Priest.  Chief representative of the Goddess energies at rituals.  
     Badge of office:  crescent Moon crown or coronet of candles. 
     2.  High Priest - See above.  Chief representative of the God  
     energies at rituals.  Badge of office:  horned headdress or animal  
     3.  Maiden - Understudy to the High Priestess, and substitutes for 
     her when necessary.  Badge of office may be a simple silver  
     circlet or tiara. 
     4.  Summoner - Understudy to the High Priest, who substitutes for  
     him when necessary.  Main administrative deputy, passing out  
     information, collecting dues, letting people know when to meet and 
     what to bring, etc.  Also called the "Man in Black," "Black Rod,"  
     or "Verdelet."  Badge of office may be a blackthorn staff. 
     Leadership in an all-woman's coven: 
     One pattern:  No hierarchy or titles at all:  ritual leadership  
     rotates, other jobs are carried out by anyone capable and willing. 
     Another pattern: 
     1.  Maiden - Understudy to the Mother, and chief administrative  
     deputy (see Summoner's duties above) 
     2.  Mother - Coordinates ritual leadership and administration,  
     guides coven projects and activities.  She does not necessarily do 
     these jobs herself always, but has the responsibility to see that  
     they are apportioned fairly and done effectively. 
     3.  Crone - Chief counselor to the Mother, and does a large share  
     of teaching and individual counseling.  May perform divination on  
     questions of concern to the coven.  Possibly a former "Mother" or  
     High Priestess, experienced and skilled in magick, herbalism, etc. 
     For both mixed and single-sex coven: 
     Council of Elders - A gathering of all the higher-rank initiates  
     in the coven.  They may function as advisors to the coven leaders, 
     or may actually set policy, establish the budget etc.  In the  
     latter case, coven leaders are essentially executives responsible  
     to the Elders. 


      Other possible officers in mixed or single-sex covens: 
     1.   Scribe  (secretary)  - Keeps  minutes  of business  meetings,  handles
     correspondence under the direction of coven leaders. 
     2.    Pursewarden  (treasurer)  -  collects  dues,  keeps  accounts,  makes
     purchases, coordinates fund-raising projects. 
     3.  Archivist (historian) - Keeps the coven Book of Shadows or "Witch Book"
     up to date, keeps files  of coven projects and activities, rituals.   These
     functions may be combined with the  
     Scribe's job. 
     4.   Bard (music director) - Collects songs and  chants, leads the coven in
     them,  provides  musical  accompaniment;   collects  ballads  and  legends,
     preserves the old lore and coven history in original songs. 
     5.   Watchman (sergeant-at-arms) - Assists in initiation rituals; in charge
     of safety  & security at meetings  and rituals.  Indoors,  checks locks and
     closes  curtains;    outdoors, finds  safe  places  for  rituals and  posts
     sentries to warn off strangers approaching.   Sets wards and arranges other
     magickal  protection.    Knows  laws  regarding  freedom  of  religion  and
     assembly, trespass ordinances  etc. 
     6.  Mistress-of, Master-of- (resource persons and teachers) - Any  
     individual who has achieved great competency in a magickal skill may  
     earn this title.  They serve as a resource for the coven, and teach  
     others.  An initiate may choose to apprentice with any Mistress or  
     Master.  Fields: 
     *  Divinatory Arts (or sub-category, such as Tarot, Astrology, I  
     Ching, Lithomony, Dreamcraft, Scrying, Radiesthesia etc.)  
     *  Herbalism (for healing, amulets/talismans, oils, incense) 
     *  Healing  Arts (including herbal healing,  psychic healing, aromatherapy,
     Bach  remedies, polarity  balancing,  healing with  stones, color  therapy,
     chakras etc.) 
     *  Familiar Arts (magickal work with animals, totems, elementals,  
     *  Talismanic Arts (designing & creating talismans & amulets) 
     *  Ritual Toolcraft (designing & creating ritual tools) 
     *  Runecraft (use of magickal alphabets) 
     *  Necromancy (communication with, or evocation of, the dead) 
     *   Psychic  Skills  (astral travel,  telepathy, telempathy,  clairvoyance,
     clairaudience, telekinesis, teleportation) 
     *  Incantation (Words of Power, charms, chants, mantras) 
     *  Fascination (trancework, hypnosis)  


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