Zalmon Shady. (1.) One of David's warriors, called the Ahohite (Sa2 23:28); called also Ilai (Ch1 11:29). (2.) A wood near Shechem, from which Abimelech and his party brought boughs and "put them to the hold" of Shechem, "and set the hold on fire" (Jdg 9:48). Probably the southern peak of Gerizim, now called Jebel Sulman. (See SALMON.)
Zalmonah Shady, one of the stations of the Israelites in the wilderness (Num 33:41, Num 33:42).
Zalmunna One of the two kings of Midian whom the "Lord delivered" into the hands of Gideon. He was slain afterwards with Zebah (Judg. 8:5-21). (See ZEBAH.)
Zamzummims A race of giants; "a people great, and many, and tall, as the Anakims" (Deu 2:20, Deu 2:21). They were overcome by the Ammonites, "who called them Zamzummims." They belonged to the Rephaim, and inhabited the country afterwards occupied by the Ammonites. It has been conjectured that they might be Ham-zuzims, i.e., Zuzims dwelling in Ham, a place apparently to the south of Ashteroth (Gen 14:5), the ancient Rabbath-ammon.
Zanoah Marsh. (1.) A town in the low country or shephelah of Judah, near Zorah (Jos 15:34). It was re-occupied after the return from the Captivity (Neh 11:30). Zanu'ah in Wady Ismail , 10 miles west of Jerusalem, occupies probably the same site. (2.) A town in the hill country of Judah, some 10 miles to the south-west of Hebron (Jos 15:56).
Zaphnath-paaneah The name which Pharaoh gave to Joseph when he raised him to the rank of prime minister or grand vizier of the kingdom (Gen 41:45). This is a pure Egyptian word, and has been variously explained. Some think it means "creator," or "preserver of life." Brugsch interprets it as "governor of the district of the place of life", i.e., of Goshen, the chief city of which was Pithom, "the place of life." Others explain it as meaning "a revealer of secrets," or "the man to whom secrets are revealed."
Zarephath Smelting-shop, "a workshop for the refining and smelting of metals", a small Phoenician town, now Surafend, about a mile from the coast, almost midway on the road between Tyre and Sidon. Here Elijah sojourned with a poor widow during the "great famine," when the "heaven was shut up three years and six months" (Luk 4:26; Kg1 17:10). It is called Sarepta in the New Testament (Luk 4:26).
Zaretan When the Hebrews crossed the Jordan, as soon as the feet of the priests were dipped in the water, the flow of the stream was arrested. The point of arrest was the "city of Adam beside Zaretan," probably near Succoth, at the mouth of the Jabbok, some 30 miles up the river from where the people were encamped. There the water "stood and rose upon an heap." Thus the whole space of 30 miles of the river-bed was dry, that the tribes might pass over (Jos 3:16, Jos 3:17; compare Psa 104:3).
Zareth-shahar The splendour of the dawn, a city "in the mount of the valley" (Jos 13:19). It is identified with the ruins of Zara, near the mouth of the Wady Zerka Main, on the eastern shore of the Dead Sea, some 3 miles south of the Callirrhoe. Of this town but little remains. "A few broken basaltic columns and pieces of wall about 200 yards back from the shore, and a ruined fort rather nearer the sea, about the middle of the coast line of the plain, are all that are left" (Tristram's Land of Moab).
Zarthan A place near Succoth, in the plain of the Jordan, "in the clay ground," near which Hiram cast the brazen utensils for the temple (Kg1 7:46); probably the same as Zartan. It is also called Zeredathah (Ch2 4:17). (See ZEREDA.)