Tares The bearded darnel, mentioned only in Mat 13:25. It is the Lolium temulentum, a species of rye-grass, the seeds of which are a strong soporific poison. It bears the closest resemblance to wheat till the ear appears, and only then the difference is discovered. It grows plentifully in Syria and Palestine.
Target (Sa1 17:6, A.V., after the LXX. and Vulg.), a kind of small shield. The margin has "gorget," a piece of armour for the throat. The Revised Version more correctly renders the Hebrew word (kidon) by "javelin." The same Hebrew word is used in Jos 8:18 (A.V., "spear;" R.V., "javelin"); Job 39:23 (A.V., "shield;" R.V., "javelin"); Job 41:29 (A.V., "spear;" R.V., "javelin").
Tarshish A Sanscrit or Aryan word, meaning "the sea coast." (1.) One of the "sons" of Javan (Gen 10:4; Ch1 1:7). (2.) The name of a place which first comes into notice in the days of Solomon. The question as to the locality of Tarshish has given rise to not a little discussion. Some think there was a Tarshish in the East, on the Indian coast, seeing that "ships of Tarshish" sailed from Eziongeber, on the Red Sea (Kg1 9:26; Kg1 22:48; Ch2 9:21). Some, again, argue that Carthage was the place so named. There can be little doubt, however, that this is the name of a Phoenician port in Spain, between the two mouths of the Guadalquivir (the name given to the river by the Arabs, and meaning "the great wady" or water-course). It was founded by a Carthaginian colony, and was the farthest western harbour of Tyrian sailors. It was to this port Jonah's ship was about to sail from Joppa. It has well been styled "the Peru of Tyrian adventure;" it abounded in gold and silver mines. It appears that this name also is used without reference to any locality. "Ships of Tarshish" is an expression sometimes denoting simply ships intended for a long voyage (Isa 23:1, Isa 23:14), ships of a large size (sea-going ships), whatever might be the port to which they sailed. Solomon's ships were so styled (Kg1 10:22; Kg1 22:49).
Tarsus The chief city of Cilicia. It was distinguished for its wealth and for its schools of learning, in which it rivaled, nay, excelled even Athens and Alexandria, and hence was spoken of as "no mean city." It was the native place of the Apostle Paul (Act 21:39). It stood on the banks of the river Cydnus, about 12 miles north of the Mediterranean. It is said to have been founded by Sardanapalus, king of Assyria. It is now a filthy, ruinous Turkish town, called Tersous. (See PAUL.)
Tartak Prince of darkness, one of the gods of the Arvites, who colonized part of Samaria after the deportation of Israel by Shalmaneser (Kg2 17:31).
Tartan An Assyrian word, meaning "the commander-in-chief." (1.) One of Sennacherib's messengers to Hezekiah (Kg2 18:17). (2.) One of Sargon's generals (Isa 20:1).
Tatnai Gift, a Persian governor (Heb. pehah , i.e., " satrap ;" modern " pasha ") "on this side the river", i.e., of the whole tract on the west of the Euphrates. This Hebrew title pehah is given to governors of provinces generally. It is given to Nehemiah (Neh 5:14) and to Zerubbabel (Hag 1:1). It is sometimes translated "captain" (Kg1 20:24; Dan 3:2, Dan 3:3), sometimes also "deputy" (Est 8:9; Est 9:3). With others, Tatnai opposed the rebuilding of the temple (Ezr 5:6); but at the command of Darius, he assisted the Jews (Ezr 6:1).
Taverns, The Three A place on the great "Appian Way," about 11 miles from Rome, designed for the reception of travelers, as the name indicates. Here Paul, on his way to Rome, was met by a band of Roman Christians (Act 28:15). The "Tres Tabernae was the first mansio or mutatio, that is, halting-place for relays, from Rome, or the last on the way to the city. At this point three roads run into the Via Appia, that from Tusculum, that from Alba Longa, and that from Antium; so necessarily here would be a halting-place, which took its name from the three shops there, the general store, the blacksmith's, and the refreshment-house Tres Tabernae is translated as Three Taverns, but it more correctly means three shops" (Forbes's Footsteps of St. Paul, p. 20).
Taxes First mentioned in the command (Exo 30:11) that every Jew from twenty years and upward should pay an annual tax of "half a shekel for an offering to the Lord." This enactment was faithfully observed for many generations (Ch2 24:6; Mat 17:24). Afterwards, when the people had kings to reign over them, they began, as Samuel had warned them (Sa1 8:10), to pay taxes for civil purposes (Kg1 4:7; Kg1 9:15; Kg1 12:4). Such taxes, in increased amount, were afterwards paid to the foreign princes that ruled over them. In the New Testament the payment of taxes, imposed by lawful rulers, is enjoined as a duty (Rom 13:1; Pe1 2:13, Pe1 2:14). Mention is made of the tax (telos) on merchandise and travelers (Mat 17:25); the annual tax (phoros) on property (Luk 20:22; Luk 23:2); the poll-tax (kensos, "tribute," Mat 17:25; Mat 22:17; Mar 12:14); and the temple-tax ("tribute money" = two drachmas = half shekel, Mat 17:24; compare Exo 30:13). (See TRIBUTE.)
Taxing (Luk 2:2; R.V., "enrollment"), "when Cyrenius was governor of Syria," is simply a census of the people, or an enrollment of them with a view to their taxation. The decree for the enrollment was the occasion of Joseph and Mary's going up to Bethlehem. It has been argued by some that Cyrenius (q.v.) was governor of Cilicia and Syria both at the time of our Lord's birth and some years afterwards. This decree for the taxing referred to the whole Roman world, and not to Judea alone. (See CENSUS.)