Man of Sin A designation of Antichrist given in Th2 2:3, usually regarded as descriptive of the Papal power; but "in whomsoever these distinctive features are found, whoever wields temporal and spiritual power in any degree similar to that in which the man of sin is here described as wielding it, he, be he pope or potentate, is beyond all doubt a distinct type of Antichrist."
Manaen Consoler, a Christian teacher at Antioch. Nothing else is known of him beyond what is stated in Act 13:1, where he is spoken of as having been brought up with (Gr. syntrophos ; rendered in R.V. "foster brother" of) Herod, i.e., Herod Antipas, the tetrach, who, with his brother Archelaus, was educated at Rome.
Manasseh Who makes to forget. "God hath made me forget" (Heb. nashshani ), Gen 41:51. (1.) The elder of the two sons of Joseph. He and his brother Ephraim were afterwards adopted by Jacob as his own sons (Gen 48:1). There is an account of his marriage to a Syrian (Ch1 7:14); and the only thing afterwards recorded of him is, that his grandchildren were "brought up upon Joseph's knees" (Gen 50:23; R.V., "born upon Joseph's knees") i.e., were from their birth adopted by Joseph as his own children. The tribe of Manasseh was associated with that of Ephraim and Benjamin during the wanderings in the wilderness. They encamped on the west side of the tabernacle. According to the census taken at Sinai, this tribe then numbered 32,200 (Num 1:10, Num 1:35; Num 2:20, Num 2:21). Forty years afterwards its numbers had increased to 52,700 (Num 26:34, Num 26:37), and it was at this time the most distinguished of all the tribes. The half of this tribe, along with Reuben and Gad, had their territory assigned them by Moses on the east of the Jordan (Jos 13:7); but it was left for Joshua to define the limits of each tribe. This territory on the east of Jordan was more valuable and of larger extent than all that was allotted to the nine and a half tribes in the land of Palestine. It is sometimes called "the land of Gilead," and is also spoken of as "on the other side of Jordan." The portion given to the half tribe of Manasseh was the largest on the east of Jordan. It embraced the whole of Bashan. It was bounded on the south by Mahanaim, and extended north to the foot of Lebanon. Argob, with its sixty cities, that "ocean of basaltic rocks and boulders tossed about in the wildest confusion," lay in the midst of this territory. The whole "land of Gilead" having been conquered, the two and a half tribes left their wives and families in the fortified cities there, and accompanied the other tribes across the Jordan, and took part with them in the wars of conquest. The allotment of the land having been completed, Joshua dismissed the two and a half tribes, commending them for their heroic service (Josh. 22:1-34). Thus dismissed, they returned over Jordan to their own inheritance. (See ED.) On the west of Jordan the other half of the tribe of Manasseh was associated with Ephraim, and they had their portion in the very centre of Palestine, an area of about 1,300 square miles, the most valuable part of the whole country, abounding in springs of water. Manasseh's portion was immediately to the north of that of Ephraim (Jos 16:1). Thus the western Manasseh defended the passes of Esdraelon as the eastern kept the passes of the Hauran. (2.) The only son and successor of Hezekiah on the throne of Judah. He was twelve years old when he began to reign (Kg2 21:1), and he reigned fifty-five years (698-643 B.C.). Though he reigned so long, yet comparatively little is known of this king. His reign was a continuation of that of Ahaz, both in religion and national polity. He early fell under the influence of the heathen court circle, and his reign was characterized by a sad relapse into idolatry with all its vices, showing that the reformation under his father had been to a large extent only superficial (Isa 7:10; Kg2 21:10). A systematic and persistent attempt was made, and all too successfully, to banish the worship of Jehovah out of the land. Amid this wide-spread idolatry there were not wanting, however, faithful prophets (Isaiah, Micah) who lifted up their voice in reproof and in warning. But their fidelity only aroused bitter hatred, and a period of cruel persecution against all the friends of the old religion began. "The days of Alva in Holland, of Charles IX. in France, or of the Covenanters under Charles II. in Scotland, were anticipated in the Jewish capital. The streets were red with blood." There is an old Jewish tradition that Isaiah was put to death at this time (Kg2 21:16; Kg2 24:3, Kg2 24:4; Jer 2:30), having been sawn asunder in the trunk of a tree. Ps. 49, 73, 77, Psa 140:1, and Psa 141:1 seem to express the feelings of the pious amid the fiery trials of this great persecution. Manasseh has been called the "Nero of Palestine." Esarhaddon, Sennacherib's successor on the Assyrian throne, who had his residence in Babylon for thirteen years (the only Assyrian monarch who ever reigned in Babylon), took Manasseh prisoner (681 B.C.) to Babylon. Such captive kings were usually treated with great cruelty. They were brought before the conqueror with a hook or ring passed through their lips or their jaws, having a cord attached to it, by which they were led. This is referred to in Ch2 33:11, where the Authorized Version reads that Esarhaddon "took Manasseh among the thorns;" while the Revised Version renders the words, "took Manasseh in chains;" or literally, as in the margin, "with hooks." (Compare Kg2 19:28.) The severity of Manasseh's imprisonment brought him to repentance. God heard his cry, and he was restored to his kingdom (Ch2 33:11). He abandoned his idolatrous ways, and enjoined the people to worship Jehovah; but there was no thorough reformation. After a lengthened reign extending through fifty-five years, the longest in the history of Judah he died, and was buried in the garden of Uzza, the "garden of his own house" (Kg2 21:17, Kg2 21:18; Ch2 33:20), and not in the city of David, among his ancestors. He was succeeded by his son Amon. In Jdg 18:30 the correct reading is "Moses," and not "Manasseh." The name "Manasseh" is supposed to have been introduced by some transcriber to avoid the scandal of naming the grandson of Moses the great lawgiver as the founder of an idolatrous religion.
Mandrakes Hebrew dudaim; i.e., "love-plants", occurs only in Gen 30:14 and Sol 7:13. Many interpretations have been given of this word dudaim. It has been rendered "violets," "Lilies," "jasmines," "truffles or mushrooms," "flowers," the "citron," etc. The weight of authority is in favour of its being regarded as the Mandragora officinalis of botanists, "a near relative of the night-shades, the 'apple of Sodom' and the potato plant." It possesses stimulating and narcotic properties (Gen 30:14). The fruit of this plant resembles the potato-apple in size, and is of a pale orange colour. It has been called the "love-apple." The Arabs call it "Satan's apple." It still grows near Jerusalem, and in other parts of Palestine.
Maneh Portion (Eze 45:12), rendered "pound" (Kg1 10:17; Ezr 2:69; Neh 7:71, Neh 7:72), a weight variously estimated, probably about 21/2 or 3 lb. A maneh of gold consisted of a hundred common shekels (q.v.). (Compare Kg1 10:17, and Ch2 9:16).
Manger (Luk 2:7, Luk 2:12, Luk 2:16), the name (Gr. phatne , rendered "stall" in Luk 13:15) given to the place where the infant Redeemer was laid. It seems to have been a stall or crib for feeding cattle. Stables and mangers in our modern sense were in ancient times unknown in the East. The word here properly denotes "the ledge or projection in the end of the room used as a stall on which the hay or other food of the animals of travelers was placed." (See INN.)
Manna Heb. man-hu , "What is that?" the name given by the Israelites to the food miraculously supplied to them during their wanderings in the wilderness (Ex. 16:15-35). The name is commonly taken as derived from man, an expression of surprise, "What is it?" but more probably it is derived from manan, meaning "to allot," and hence denoting an "allotment" or a "gift." This "gift" from God is described as "a small round thing," like the "hoar-frost on the ground," and "like coriander seed," "of the colour of bdellium," and in taste "like wafers made with honey." It was capable of being baked and boiled, ground in mills, or beaten in a mortar (Exo 16:23; Num 11:7). If any was kept over till the following morning, it became corrupt with worms; but as on the Sabbath none fell, on the preceding day a double portion was given, and that could be kept over to supply the wants of the Sabbath without becoming corrupt. Directions concerning the gathering of it are fully given (Exo 16:16, Exo 16:33; Deu 8:3 16). It fell for the first time after the eighth encampment in the desert of Sin, and was daily furnished, except on the Sabbath, for all the years of the wanderings, till they encamped at Gilgal, after crossing the Jordan, when it suddenly ceased, and where they "did eat of the old corn of the land; neither had the children of Israel manna any more" (Jos 5:12). They now no longer needed the "bread of the wilderness." This manna was evidently altogether a miraculous gift, wholly different from any natural product with which we are acquainted, and which bears this name. The manna of European commerce comes chiefly from Calabria and Sicily. It drops from the twigs of a species of ash during the months of June and July. At night it is fluid and resembles dew, but in the morning it begins to harden. The manna of the Sinaitic peninsula is an exudation from the "manna-tamarisk" tree (Tamarix mannifera), the el-tarfah of the Arabs. This tree is found at the present day in certain well-watered valleys in the peninsula of Sinai. The manna with which the people of Israel were fed for forty years differs in many particulars from all these natural products. Our Lord refers to the manna when he calls himself the "true bread from heaven" (Joh 6:31, Joh 6:48). He is also the "hidden manna" (Rev 2:17; compare Joh 6:49, Joh 6:51).
Manoah Rest, a Danite, the father of Samson (Judg. 13:1-22, and Jdg 14:2).
Manslayer One who was guilty of accidental homicide, and was entitled to flee to a city of refuge (Num 35:6, Num 35:12, Num 35:22, Num 35:23), his compulsory residence in which terminated with the death of the high priest. (See CITY OF REFUGE.)
Mantle (1.) Heb. 'addereth , a large over-garment. This word is used of Elijah's mantle (Kg1 19:13, Kg1 19:19; Kg2 2:8, Kg2 2:13, etc.), which was probably a sheepskin. It appears to have been his only garment, a strip of skin or leather binding it to his loins. 'Addereth twice occurs with the epithet "hairy" (Gen 25:25; Zac 13:4, R.V.). It is the word denoting the "goodly Babylonish garment" which Achan coveted (Jos 7:21). (2.) Heb. me'il , frequently applied to the "robe of the ephod" (Exo 28:4, Exo 28:31; Lev 8:7), which was a splendid under tunic wholly of blue, reaching to below the knees. It was woven without seam, and was put on by being drawn over the head. It was worn not only by priests but by kings (Sa1 24:4), prophets (Sa1 15:27), and rich men (Job 1:20; Job 2:12). This was the "little coat" which Samuel's mother brought to him from year to year to Shiloh (Sa1 2:19), a miniature of the official priestly robe. (3.) Semikah , "a rug," the garment which Jael threw as a covering over Sisera (Jdg 4:18). The Hebrew word occurs nowhere else in Scripture. (4.) Maataphoth , plural, only in Isa 3:22, denoting a large exterior tunic worn by females. (See DRESS.)