Life Generally of physical life (Gen 2:7; Luk 16:25, etc.); also used figuratively (1.) for immortality (Heb 7:16); (2.) conduct or manner of life (Rom 6:4); (3.) spiritual life or salvation (Joh 3:16, Joh 3:17, Joh 3:18, Joh 3:36); (4.) eternal life (Mat 19:16, Mat 19:17; Joh 3:15); of God and Christ as the absolute source and cause of all life (Joh 1:4; Joh 5:26, Joh 5:39; Joh 11:25; Joh 12:50).
Light The offspring of the divine command (Gen 1:3). "All the more joyous emotions of the mind, all the pleasing sensations of the frame, all the happy hours of domestic intercourse were habitually described among the Hebrews under imagery derived from light" (Kg1 11:36; Isa 58:8; Est 8:16; Psa 97:11). Light came also naturally to typify true religion and the felicity it imparts (Psa 119:105; Isa 8:20; Mat 4:16, etc.), and the glorious inheritance of the redeemed (Col 1:12; Rev 21:23). God is said to dwell in light inaccessible (Ti1 6:16). It frequently signifies instruction (Mat 5:16; Joh 5:35). In its highest sense it is applied to Christ as the "Sun of righteousness" (Mal 4:2; Luk 2:32; Joh 1:7). God is styled "the Father of lights" (Jam 1:17). It is used of angels (Co2 11:14), and of John the Baptist, who was a "burning and a shining light" (Joh 5:35), and of all true disciples, who are styled "the light of the world" (Mat 5:14).
Lightning Frequently referred to by the sacred writers (Nah 1:3). Thunder and lightning are spoken of as tokens of God's wrath (Sa2 22:15; Job 28:26; Job 37:4; Psa 135:7; Psa 144:6; Zac 9:14). They represent God's glorious and awful majesty (Rev 4:5), or some judgment of God on the world (Rev 20:9).
Lign-aloes (only in pl., Heb. 'ahalim ), a perfume derived from some Oriental tree (Num 24:6), probably the agallochum or aloe-wood. (See ALOES).
Ligure (Heb. leshem ) occurs only in Exo 28:19 and Exo 39:12, as the name of a stone in the third row on the high priest's breastplate. Some have supposed that this stone was the same as the jacinth (q.v.), others that it was the opal. There is now no mineral bearing this name. The "ligurite" is so named from Liguria in Italy, where it was found.
Lily The Hebrew name shushan or shoshan, i.e., "whiteness", was used as the general name of several plants common to Syria, such as the tulip, iris, anemone, gladiolus, ranunculus, etc. Some interpret it, with much probability, as denoting in the Old Testament the water-lily (Nymphoea lotus of Linn.), or lotus (Sol 2:1, Sol 2:2; Sol 2:16; Sol 4:5; Sol 5:13; Sol 6:2, Sol 6:3; Sol 7:2). "Its flowers are large, and they are of a white colour, with streaks of pink. They supplied models for the ornaments of the pillars and the molten sea" (Kg1 7:19, Kg1 7:22, Kg1 7:26; Ch2 4:5). In the Canticles its beauty and fragrance shadow forth the preciousness of Christ to the Church. Groser, however (Scrip. Nat. Hist.), strongly argues that the word, both in the Old and New Testaments, denotes liliaceous plants in general, or if one genus is to be selected, that it must be the genus Iris, which is "large, vigorous, elegant in form, and gorgeous in colouring." The lilies (Gr. krinia ) spoken of in the New Testament (Mat 6:28; Luk 12:27) were probably the scarlet martagon (Lilium Chalcedonicum) or "red Turk's-cap lily", which "comes into flower at the season of the year when our Lord's sermon on the mount is supposed to have been delivered. It is abundant in the district of Galilee; and its fine scarlet flowers render it a very conspicuous and showy object, which would naturally attract the attention of the hearers" (Balfour's Plants of the Bible). Of the true "floral glories of Palestine" the pheasant's eye (Adonis Palestina), the ranunuculus (R. Asiaticus), and the anemone (A coronaria), the last named is however, with the greatest probability regarded as the "lily of the field" to which our Lord refers. "Certainly," says Tristram (Nat. Hist. of the Bible), "if, in the wondrous richness of bloom which characterizes the land of Israel in spring, any one plant can claim pre-eminence, it is the anemone, the most natural flower for our Lord to pluck and seize upon as an illustration, whether walking in the fields or sitting on the hill-side." "The white water-lily (Nymphcea alba) and the yellow water-lily (Nuphar lutea) are both abundant in the marshes of the Upper Jordan, but have no connection with the lily of Scripture."
Lime The Hebrew word so rendered means "boiling" or "effervescing." From Isa 33:12 it appears that lime was made in a kiln lighted by thorn-bushes. In Amo 2:1 it is recorded that the king of Moab "burned the bones of the king of Edom into lime." The same Hebrew word is used in Deu 27:2, and is there rendered "plaster." Limestone is the chief constituent of the mountains of Syria.
Lines Were used for measuring and dividing land; and hence the word came to denote a portion or inheritance measured out; a possession (Psa 16:6).
Linen (1.) Heb., pishet, pishtah, denotes "flax," of which linen is made (Isa 19:9); wrought flax, i.e., "linen cloth", Lev 13:47, Lev 13:48, Lev 13:52, Lev 13:59; Deu 22:11. Flax was early cultivated in Egypt (Exo 9:31), and also in Palestine (Jos 2:6; Hos 2:9). Various articles were made of it: garment (Sa2 6:14), girdles (Jer 13:1), ropes and thread (Eze 40:3), napkins (Luk 24:12; Joh 20:7), turbans (Eze 44:18), and lamp-wicks (Isa 42:3). (2.) Heb. buts , "whiteness;" rendered "fine linen" in Ch1 4:21; Ch1 15:27; Ch2 2:14; Ch2 3:14; Est 1:6; Est 8:15, and "white linen" Ch2 5:12. It is not certain whether this word means cotton or linen. (3.) Heb. bad ; rendered "linen" Exo 28:42; Exo 39:28; Lev 6:10; Lev 16:4, Lev 16:23, Lev 16:32; Sa1 2:18; Sa2 6:14, etc. It is uniformly used of the sacred vestments worn by the priests. The word is from a root signifying "separation." (4.) Heb. shesh ; rendered "fine linen" Exo 25:4; Exo 26:1, Exo 26:31, Exo 26:36, etc. In Pro 31:22 it is rendered in Authorized Version "silk," and in Revised Version "fine linen." The word denotes Egyptian linen of peculiar whiteness and fineness (byssus). The finest Indian linen, the finest now made, has in an inch one hundred threads of warp and eighty-four of woof; while the Egyptian had sometimes one hundred and forty in the warp and sixty-four in the woof. This was the usual dress of the Egyptian priest. Pharaoh arrayed Joseph in a dress of linen (Gen 41:42). (5.) Heb. 'etun . Pro 7:16, "fine linen of Egypt;" in Revised Version, "the yarn of Egypt." (6.) Heb. sadin . Pro 31:24, "fine linen;" in Revised Version, "linen garments" (Jdg 14:12, Jdg 14:13; Isa 3:23). From this Hebrew word is probably derived the Greek word sindon , rendered "linen" in Mar 14:51, Mar 14:52; Mar 15:46; Mat 27:59. The word "linen" is used as an emblem of moral purity (Rev 15:6). In Luk 16:19 it is mentioned as a mark of luxury.
Linen-yarn (See YARN.)