Jehoiachin Succeeded his father Jehoiakin (599 B.C.) when only eight years of age, and reigned for one hundred days (Ch2 36:9). He is also called Jeconiah (Jer 24:1; Jer 27:20, etc.), and Coniah (Jer 22:24; Jer 37:1). He was succeeded by his uncle, Mattaniah = Zedekiah (q.v.). He was the last direct heir to the Jewish crown. He was carried captive to Babylon by Nebuchadnezzar, along with the flower of the nobility, all the leading men in Jerusalem, and a great body of the general population, some thirteen thousand in all (Kg2 24:12; Jer 52:28). After an imprisonment of thirty-seven years (Jer 52:31, Jer 52:33), he was liberated by Evil-merodach, and permitted to occupy a place in the king's household and sit at his table, receiving "every day a portion until the day of his death, all the days of his life" (Jer 52:32).
Jehoiakim He whom Jehovah has set up, the second son of Josiah, and eighteenth king of Judah, which he ruled over for eleven years (610-599 B.C.). His original name was Eliakim (q.v.). On the death of his father his younger brother Jehoahaz (= Shallum, Jer 22:11), who favoured the Chaldeans against the Egyptians, was made king by the people; but the king of Egypt, Pharaoh-necho, invaded the land and deposed Jehoahaz (Kg2 23:33, Kg2 23:34; Jer 22:10), setting Eliakim on the throne in his stead, and changing his name to Jehoiakim. After this the king of Egypt took no part in Jewish politics, having been defeated by the Chaldeans at Carchemish (Kg2 24:7; Jer 46:2). Palestine was now invaded and conquered by Nebuchadnezzar. Jehoiakim was taken prisoner and carried captive to Babylon (Ch2 36:6, Ch2 36:7). It was at this time that Daniel also and his three companions were taken captive to Babylon (Dan 1:1, Dan 1:2). Nebuchadnezzar reinstated Jehoiakim on his throne, but treated him as a vassal king. In the year after this, Jeremiah caused his prophecies to be read by Baruch in the court of the temple. Jehoiakim, hearing of this, had them also read in the royal palace before himself. The words displeased him, and taking the roll from the hands of Baruch he cut it in pieces and threw it into the fire (Jer 36:23). During his disastrous reign there was a return to the old idolatry and corruption of the days of Manasseh. After three years of subjection to Babylon, Jehoiakim withheld his tribute and threw off the yoke (Kg2 24:1), hoping to make himself independent. Nebuchadnezzar sent bands of Chaldeans, Syrians, and Ammonites (Kg2 24:2) to chastise his rebellious vassal. They cruelly harassed the whole country (compare Jer 49:1). The king came to a violent death, and his body having been thrown over the wall of Jerusalem, to convince the besieging army that he was dead, after having been dragged away, was buried beyond the gates of Jerusalem "with the burial of an ass," 599 B.C. (Jer 22:18, Jer 22:19; Jer 36:30). Nebuchadnezzar placed his son Jehoiachin on the throne, wishing still to retain the kingdom of Judah as tributary to him.
Jehoiarib Jehovah defends, a priest at Jerusalem, head of one of the sacerdotal courses (Ch1 9:10; Ch1 24:7). His "course" went up from Babylon after the Exile (Ezr 2:36; Neh 7:39).
Jehonadab Jehovah is liberal; or, whom Jehovah impels. (1.) A son of Shimeah, and nephew of David. It was he who gave the fatal wicked advice to Amnon, the heir to the throne (Sa2 13:3). He was very "subtle," but unprincipled. (2.) A son of Rechab, the founder of a tribe who bound themselves by a vow to abstain from wine (Jer 35:6). There were different settlements of Rechabites (Jdg 1:16; Jdg 4:11; Ch1 2:55). (See RECHABITE.) His interview and alliance with Jehu are mentioned in Kg2 10:15. He went with Jehu in his chariot to Samaria.
Jehonathan Whom Jehovah gave. (1.) One of the stewards of David's store-houses (Ch1 27:25). (2.) A Levite who taught the law to the people of Judah (Ch2 17:8). (3.) Neh 12:18.
Jehoram Jehovah-exalted. (1.) Son of Toi, king of Hamath, sent by his father to congratulate David on the occasion of his victory over Hadadezer (Sa2 8:10). (2.) A Levite of the family of Gershom (Ch1 26:25). (3.) A priest sent by Jehoshaphat to instruct the people in Judah (Ch2 17:8). (4.) The son of Ahab and Jezebel, and successor to his brother Ahaziah on the throne of Israel. He reigned twelve years, 896-884 B.C. (Kg2 1:17; Kg2 3:1). His first work was to reduce to subjection the Moabites, who had asserted their independence in the reign of his brother. Jehoshaphat, king of Judah, assisted Jehoram in this effort. He was further helped by his ally the king of Edom. Elisha went forth with the confederated army (2 Kings 3:1-19), and at the solicitation of Jehoshaphat encouraged the army with the assurance from the Lord of a speedy victory. The Moabites under Mesha their king were utterly routed and their cities destroyed. At Kir-haraseth Mesha made a final stand. The Israelites refrained from pressing their victory further, and returned to their own land. Elisha afterwards again befriended Jehoram when a war broke out between the Syrians and Israel, and in a remarkable way brought that war to a bloodless close (Kg2 6:23). But Jehoram, becoming confident in his own power, sank into idolatry, and brought upon himself and his land another Syrian invasion, which led to great suffering and distress in Samaria (Kg2 6:24). By a remarkable providential interposition the city was saved from utter destruction, and the Syrians were put to flight (Kg2 7:6). Jehoram was wounded in a battle with the Syrians at Ramah, and obliged to return to Jezreel (Kg2 8:29; Kg2 9:14, Kg2 9:15), and soon after the army proclaimed their leader Jehu king of Israel, and revolted from their allegiance to Jehoram (2 Kings 9). Jehoram was pierced by an arrow from Jehu's bow on the piece of ground at Jezreel which Ahab had taken from Naboth, and there he died (Kg2 9:21). (5.) The eldest son and successor of Jehoshaphat, king of Judah. He reigned eight years (892-885 B.C.) alone as king of Judah, having been previously for some years associated with his father (Ch2 21:5, Ch2 21:20; Kg2 8:16). His wife was Athaliah, the daughter of Ahab and Jezebel. His daughter Jehosheba was married to the high priest Jehoiada. He sank into gross idolatry, and brought upon himself and his kingdom the anger of Jehovah. The Edomites revolted from under his yoke, and the Philistines and the Arabians and Cushites invaded the land, and carried away great spoil, along with Jehoram's wives and all his children, except Ahaziah. He died a painful death from a fearful malady, and was refused a place in the sepulchre of the kings (Kg2 8:16; 2 Chr. 21).
Jehoshaphat Jehovah-judged. (1.) One of David's body-guard (Ch1 11:43). (2.) One of the priests who accompanied the removal of the ark to Jerusalem (Ch1 15:24). (3.) Son of Ahilud, "recorder" or anna-list under David and Solomon (Sa2 8:16), a state officer of high rank, chancellor or vizier of the kingdom. (4.) Solomon's purveyor in Issachar (Kg1 4:17). (5.) The son and successor of Asa, king of Judah. After fortifying his kingdom against Israel (Ch2 17:1, Ch2 17:2), he set himself to cleanse the land of idolatry (Kg1 22:43). In the third year of his reign he sent out priests and Levites over the land to instruct the people in the law (Ch2 17:7). He enjoyed a great measure of peace and prosperity, the blessing of God resting on the people "in their basket and their store." The great mistake of his reign was his entering into an alliance with Ahab, the king of Israel, which involved him in much disgrace, and brought disaster on his kingdom (1 Kings 22:1-33). Escaping from the bloody battle of Ramoth-gilead, the prophet Jehu (Ch2 19:1) reproached him for the course he had been pursuing, whereupon he entered with rigour on his former course of opposition to all idolatry, and of deepening interest in the worship of God and in the righteous government of the people (Ch2 19:4). Again he entered into an alliance with Ahaziah, the king of Israel, for the purpose of carrying on maritime commerce with Ophir. But the fleet that was then equipped at Ezion-gaber was speedily wrecked. A new fleet was fitted out without the co-operation of the king of Israel, and although it was successful, the trade was not prosecuted (Ch2 20:35; Kg1 22:48). He subsequently joined Jehoram, king of Israel, in a war against the Moabites, who were under tribute to Israel. This war was successful. The Moabites were subdued; but the dreadful act of Mesha in offering his own son a sacrifice on the walls of Kir-haresheth in the sight of the armies of Israel filled him with horror, and he withdrew and returned to his own land (2 Kings 3:4-27). The last most notable event of his reign was that recorded in 2 Chr. 20. The Moabites formed a great and powerful confederacy with the surrounding nations, and came against Jehoshaphat. The allied forces were encamped at Engedi. The king and his people were filled with alarm, and betook themselves to God in prayer. The king prayed in the court of the temple, "O our God, wilt thou not judge them? for we have no might against this great company that cometh against us." Amid the silence that followed, the voice of Jahaziel the Levite was heard announcing that on the morrow all this great host would be overthrown. So it was, for they quarreled among themselves, and slew one another, leaving to the people of Judah only to gather the rich spoils of the slain. This was recognized as a great deliverance wrought for them by God (890 B.C.). Soon after this Jehoshaphat died, after a reign of twenty-five years, being sixty years of age, and was succeeded by his son Jehoram (Kg1 22:50). He had this testimony, that "he sought the Lord with all his heart" (Ch2 22:9). The kingdom of Judah was never more prosperous than under his reign. (6.) The son of Nimshi, and father of Jehu, king of Israel (Kg2 9:2, Kg2 9:14).
Jehoshaphat, Valley of Mentioned in Scripture only in Joe 3:2, Joe 3:12. This is the name given in modern times to the valley between Jerusalem and the Mount of Olives, and the Kidron flows through it. Here Jehoshaphat overthrew the confederated enemies of Israel (Psa 83:6); and in this valley also God was to overthrow the Tyrians, Zidonians, etc. (Joe 3:4, Joe 3:19), with an utter overthrow. This has been fulfilled; but Joel speaks of the final conflict, when God would destroy all Jerusalem's enemies, of whom Tyre and Zidon, etc., were types. The "valley of Jehoshaphat" may therefore be simply regarded as a general term for the theatre of God's final judgments on the enemies of Israel. This valley has from ancient times been used by the Jews as a burial-ground. It is all over paved with flat stones as tombstones, bearing on them Hebrew inscriptions.
Jehosheba Jehovah-swearing, the daughter of Jehoram, the king of Israel. She is called Jehoshabeath in Ch2 22:11. She was the only princess of the royal house who was married to a high priest, Jehoiada (Ch2 22:11).
Jehovah The special and significant name (not merely an appellative title such as Lord) by which God revealed himself to the ancient Hebrews (Exo 6:2, Exo 6:3). This name, the Tetragrammaton of the Greeks, was held by the later Jews to be so sacred that it was never pronounced except by the high priest on the great Day of Atonement, when he entered into the most holy place. Whenever this name occurred in the sacred books they pronounced it, as they still do, "Adonai" (i.e., Lord), thus using another word in its stead. The Massorets gave to it the vowel-points appropriate to this word. This Jewish practice was founded on a false interpretation of Lev 24:16. The meaning of the word appears from Exo 3:14 to be "the unchanging, eternal, self-existent God," the "I am that I am," a covenant-keeping God. (Compare Mal 3:6; Hos 12:5; Rev 1:4, Rev 1:8.) The Hebrew name "Jehovah" is generally translated in the Authorized Version (and the Revised Version has not departed from this rule) by the word LORD printed in small capitals, to distinguish it from the rendering of the Hebrew Adonai and the Greek Kurios , which are also rendered Lord, but printed in the usual type. The Hebrew word is translated "Jehovah" only in Exo 6:3; Psa 83:18; Isa 12:2; Isa 26:4, and in the compound names mentioned below. It is worthy of notice that this name is never used in the LXX., the Samaritan Pentateuch, the Apocrypha, or in the New Testament. It is found, however, on the "Moabite stone" (q.v.), and consequently it must have been in the days of Mesba so commonly pronounced by the Hebrews as to be familiar to their heathen neighbours.