Imputation Is used to designate any action or word or thing as reckoned to a person. Thus in doctrinal language (1.) the sin of Adam is imputed to all his descendants, i.e., it is reckoned as theirs, and they are dealt with therefore as guilty; (2.) the righteousness of Christ is imputed to them that believe in him, or so attributed to them as to be considered their own; and (3.) our sins are imputed to Christ, i.e., he assumed our "law-place," undertook to answer the demands of justice for our sins. In all these cases the nature of imputation is the same (Rom 5:12; compare Plm 1:18, Plm 1:19).
Incarnation That act of grace whereby Christ took our human nature into union with his Divine Person, became man. Christ is both God and man. Human attributes and actions are predicated of him, and he of whom they are predicated is God. A Divine Person was united to a human nature (Act 20:28; Rom 8:32; Co1 2:8; Heb 2:11; Ti1 3:16; Gal 4:4, etc.). The union is hypostatical, i.e., is personal; the two natures are not mixed or confounded, and it is perpetual.
Incense A fragrant composition prepared by the "art of the apothecary." It consisted of four ingredients "beaten small" (Exo 30:34). That which was not thus prepared was called "strange incense" (Exo 30:9). It was offered along with every meat-offering; and besides was daily offered on the golden altar in the holy place, and on the great day of atonement was burnt by the high priest in the holy of holies (Exo 30:7, Exo 30:8). It was the symbol of prayer (Psa 141:1, Psa 141:2; Rev 5:8; Rev 8:3, Rev 8:4).
India Occurs only in Est 1:1 and Est 8:9, where the extent of the dominion of the Persian king is described. The country so designated here is not the peninsula of Hindustan, but the country surrounding the Indus, the Punjab. The people and the products of India were well known to the Jews, who seem to have carried on an active trade with that country (Eze 27:15, Eze 27:24).
Inn In the modern sense, unknown in the East. The khans or caravanserais, which correspond to the European inn, are not alluded to in the Old Testament. The "inn" mentioned in Exo 4:24 was just the halting-place of the caravan. In later times khans were erected for the accommodation of travelers. In Luk 2:7 the word there so rendered denotes a place for loosing the beasts of their burdens. It is rendered "guest-chamber" in Mar 14:14 and Luk 22:11. In Luk 10:34 the word so rendered is different. That inn had an "inn-keeper," who attended to the wants of travelers.
Inkhorn The Hebrew word so rendered means simply a round vessel or cup for containing ink, which was generally worn by writers in the girdle (Eze 9:2, Eze 9:3, Eze 9:11). The word "inkhorn" was used by the translators, because in former times in this country horns were used for containing ink.
Inspiration That extraordinary or supernatural divine influence vouchsafed to those who wrote the Holy Scriptures, rendering their writings infallible. "All scripture is given by inspiration of God" (R.V., "Every scripture inspired of God"), Ti2 3:16. This is true of all the "sacred writings," not in the sense of their being works of genius or of supernatural insight, but as "theopneustic," i.e., "breathed into by God" in such a sense that the writers were supernaturally guided to express exactly what God intended them to express as a revelation of his mind and will. The testimony of the sacred writers themselves abundantly demonstrates this truth; and if they are infallible as teachers of doctrine, then the doctrine of plenary inspiration must be accepted. There are no errors in the Bible as it came from God none have been proved to exist. Difficulties and phenomena we cannot explain are not errors. All these books of the Old and New Testaments are inspired. We do not say that they contain, but that they are, the Word of God. The gift of inspiration rendered the writers the organs of God, for the infallible communication of his mind and will, in the very manner and words in which it was originally given. As to the nature of inspiration we have no information. This only we know, it rendered the writers infallible. They were all equally inspired, and are all equally infallible. The inspiration of the sacred writers did not change their characters. They retained all their individual peculiarities as thinkers or writers. (See BIBLE; WORD OF GOD.)
Intercession of Christ Christ's priestly office consists of these two parts, (1.) the offering up of himself as a sacrifice, and (2.) making continual intercession for us. When on earth he made intercession for his people (Luk 23:34; Joh 17:20; Heb 5:7); but now he exercises this function of his priesthood in heaven, where he is said to appear in the presence of God for us (Heb 9:12, Heb 9:24). His advocacy with the Father for his people rests on the basis of his own all-perfect sacrifice. Thus he pleads for and obtains the fulfillment of all the promises of the everlasting covenant (Jo1 2:1; Joh 17:24; Heb 7:25). He can be "touched with the feeling of our infirmities," and is both a merciful and a faithful high priest (Heb 2:17, Heb 2:18; Heb 4:15, Heb 4:16). This intercession is an essential part of his mediatorial work. Through him we have "access" to the Father (Joh 14:6; Eph 2:18; Eph 3:12). "The communion of his people with the Father will ever be sustained through him as mediatorial Priest" (Psa 110:4; Rev 7:17).
Intercession of the Spirit (Rom 8:26, Rom 8:27; Joh 14:26). "Christ is a royal Priest (Zac 6:13). From the same throne, as King, he dispenses his Spirit to all the objects of his care, while as Priest he intercedes for them. The Spirit acts for him, taking only of his things. They both act with one consent, Christ as principal, the Spirit as his agent. Christ intercedes for us, without us, as our advocate in heaven, according to the provisions of the everlasting covenant. The Holy Spirit works upon our minds and hearts, enlightening and quickening, and thus determining our desires 'according to the will of God,' as our advocate within us. The work of the one is complementary to that of the other, and together they form a complete whole." Hodge's Outlines of Theology.
Iphedeiah Set free by Jehovah, a chief of the tribe of Benjamin (Ch1 8:25).