Gall (1.) Heb. mererah , meaning "bitterness" (Job 16:13); i.e., the bile secreted in the liver. This word is also used of the poison of asps (Job 20:14), and of the vitals, the seat of life (Job 20:25). (2.) Heb. rosh . In Deu 32:33 and Job 20:16 it denotes the poison of serpents. In Hos 10:4 the Hebrew word is rendered "hemlock." The original probably denotes some bitter, poisonous plant, most probably the poppy, which grows up quickly, and is therefore coupled with wormwood (Deu 29:18; Jer 9:15; Lam 3:19). Compare Jer 8:14; Jer 23:15, "water of gall," Gesenius, "poppy juice;" others, "water of hemlock," "bitter water." Gr. chole (Mat 27:34), the LXX. translation of the Hebrew rosh in Psa 69:21, which foretells our Lord's sufferings. The drink offered to our Lord was vinegar (made of light wine rendered acid, the common drink of Roman soldiers) "mingled with gall," or, according to Mark (Mar 15:23), "mingled with myrrh;" both expressions meaning the same thing, namely, that the vinegar was made bitter by the infusion of wormwood or some other bitter substance, usually given, according to a merciful custom, as an anodyne to those who were crucified, to render them insensible to pain. Our Lord, knowing this, refuses to drink it. He would take nothing to cloud his faculties or blunt the pain of dying. He chooses to suffer every element of woe in the bitter cup of agony given him by the Father (Joh 18:11).
Galeed Heap of witness, the name of the pile of stones erected by Jacob and Laban to mark the league of friendship into which they entered with each other (Gen 31:47, Gen 31:48). This was the name given to the "heap" by Jacob. It is Hebrew, while the name Jegar-sahadutha, given to it by Laban, is Aramaic (Chaldee or Syriac). Probably Nahor's family originally spoke Aramaic, and Abraham and his descendants learned Hebrew, a kindred dialect, in the land of Canaan.
Gallery (1.) Heb. 'attik (Eze 41:15, Eze 41:16), a terrace; a projection; ledge. (2.) Heb. rahit (Sol 1:17), translated "rafters," marg. "galleries;" probably panel-work or fretted ceiling.
Gallim Heaps, (Sa1 25:44; Isa 10:30). The native place of Phalti, to whom Michal was given by Saul. It was probably in Benjamin, to the north of Jerusalem.
Gallio The elder brother of Seneca the philosopher, who was tutor and for some time minister of the emperor Nero. He was "deputy", i.e., proconsul, as in Revised Version, of Achaia, under the emperor Claudius, when Paul visited Corinth (Act 18:12). The word used here by Luke in describing the rank of Gallio shows his accuracy. Achaia was a senatorial province under Claudius, and the governor of such a province was called a "proconsul." He is spoken of by his contemporaries as "sweet Gallio," and is described as a most popular and affectionate man. When the Jews brought Paul before his tribunal on the charge of persuading "men to worship God contrary to the law" (Act 18:13), he refused to listen to them, and "drove them from the judgment seat" (Act 18:16).
Gallows Heb. 'ets , meaning "a tree" (Est 6:4), a post or gibbet. In Gen 40:19 and Deu 21:22 the word is rendered "tree."
Gamaliel Reward of God. (1.) A chief of the tribe of Manasseh at the census at Sinai (Num 1:10; Num 2:20; Num 7:54, Num 7:59). (2.) The son of rabbi Simeon, and grandson of the famous rabbi Hillel. He was a Pharisee, and therefore the opponent of the party of the Sadducees. He was noted for his learning, and was president of the Sanhedrim during the reigns of Tiberius, Caligula, and Claudius, and died, it is said, about eighteen years before the destruction of Jerusalem. When the apostles were brought before the council, charged with preaching the resurrection of Jesus, as a zealous Pharisee Gamaliel counseled moderation and calmness. By a reference to well-known events, he advised them to "refrain from these men." If their work or counsel was of man, it would come to nothing; but if it was of God, they could not destroy it, and therefore ought to be on their guard lest they should be "found fighting against God" (Act 5:34). Paul was one of his disciples (Act 22:3).
Games (1.) Of children (Zac 8:5; Mat 11:16). The Jewish youth were also apparently instructed in the use of the bow and the sling (Jdg 20:16; Ch1 12:2). (2.) Public games, such as were common among the Greeks and Romans, were foreign to the Jewish institutions and customs. Reference, however, is made to such games in two passages (Psa 19:5; Ecc 9:11). (3.) Among the Greeks and Romans games entered largely into their social life. (a) Reference in the New Testament is made to gladiatorial shows and fights with wild beasts (Co1 15:32). These were common among the Romans, and sometimes on a large scale. (b) Allusion is frequently made to the Grecian gymnastic contests (Gal 2:2; Gal 5:7; Phi 2:16; Phi 3:14; Ti1 6:12; Ti2 2:5; Heb 12:1, Heb 12:4, Heb 12:12). These were very numerous. The Olympic, Pythian, Nemean, and Isthmian games were esteemed as of great national importance, and the victors at any of these games of wrestling, racing, etc., were esteemed as the noblest and the happiest of mortals.
Gammadim (Eze 27:11) brave warriors; R.V. marg., "valorous men;" others interpret this word as meaning "short-swordsmen," or "daring ones", the name of a class of men who were defenders of the towers of Tyre.
Gamul Weaned the leader of one of the priestly courses (Ch1 24:17).