Evil-speaking Is expressly forbidden (Tit 3:2; Jam 4:11), and severe punishments are denounced against it (Co1 5:11; Co1 6:10). It is spoken of also with abhorrence (Psa 15:3; Pro 18:6, Pro 18:7), and is foreign to the whole Christian character and the example of Christ.
Example Of Christ (Pe1 2:21; Joh 13:15); of pastors to their flocks (Phi 3:17; Th2 3:9; Ti1 4:12; Pe1 5:3); of the Jews as a warning (Heb 4:11); of the prophets as suffering affliction (Jam 5:10).
Executioner (Mar 6:27). Instead of the Greek word, Mark here uses a Latin word, speculator , which literally means "a scout," "a spy," and at length came to denote one of the armed bodyguard of the emperor. Herod Antipas, in imitation of the emperor, had in attendance on him a company of speculators. They were sometimes employed as executioners, but this was a mere accident of their office. (See MARK, GOSPEL OF,)
Exercise, Bodily (Ti1 4:8). An ascetic mortification of the flesh and denial of personal gratification (compare Col 2:23) to which some sects of the Jews, especially the Essenes, attached importance.
Exile (1.) Of the kingdom of Israel. In the time of Pekah, Tiglath-pileser II. carried away captive into Assyria (Kg2 15:29; compare Isa 10:5, Isa 10:6) a part of the inhabitants of Galilee and of Gilead (741 B.C.). After the destruction of Samaria (720 B.C.) by Shalmaneser and Sargon (q.v.), there was a general deportation of the Israelites into Mesopotamia and Media (Kg2 17:6; Kg2 18:9; Ch1 5:26). (See ISRAEL, KINGDOM OF.) (2.) Of the kingdom of the two tribes, the kingdom of Judah. Nebuchadnezzar, in the fourth year of Jehoiakim (Jer 25:1), invaded Judah, and carried away some royal youths, including Daniel and his companions (606 B.C.), together with the sacred vessels of the temple (Ch2 36:7; Dan 1:2). In 598 B.C. (Jer 52:28; Kg2 24:12), in the beginning of Jehoiachin's reign (Kg2 24:8), Nebuchadnezzar carried away captive 3,023 eminent Jews, including the king (Ch2 36:10), with his family and officers (Kg2 24:12), and a large number of warriors (Kg2 24:16), with very many persons of note (Kg2 24:14), and artisans (Kg2 24:16), leaving behind only those who were poor and helpless. This was the first general deportation to Babylon. In 588 B.C., after the revolt of Zedekiah (q.v.), there was a second general deportation of Jews by Nebuchadnezzar (Jer 52:29; Kg2 25:8), including 832 more of the principal men of the kingdom. He carried away also the rest of the sacred vessels (Ch2 36:18). From this period, when the temple was destroyed (Kg2 25:9), to the complete restoration, 517 B.C. (Ezr 6:15), is the period of the "seventy years." In 582 B.C. occurred the last and final deportation. The entire number Nebuchadnezzar carried captive was 4,600 heads of families with their wives and children and dependents (Jer 52:30; Jer 43:5; Ch2 36:20, etc.). Thus the exiles formed a very considerable community in Babylon. When Cyrus granted permission to the Jews to return to their own land (Ezr 1:5; Ezr 7:13), only a comparatively small number at first availed themselves of the privilege. It cannot be questioned that many belonging to the kingdom of Israel ultimately joined the Jews under Ezra, Zerubbabel, and Nehemiah, and returned along with them to Jerusalem (Jer 50:4, Jer 50:5, Jer 50:17, Jer 50:33). Large numbers had, however, settled in the land of Babylon, and formed numerous colonies in different parts of the kingdom. Their descendants very probably have spread far into Eastern lands and become absorbed in the general population. (See JUDAH, KINGDOM OF; CAPTIVITY.)
Exodus The great deliverance wrought for the children of Israel when they were brought out of the land of Egypt with "a mighty hand and with an outstretched 136), about 1490 B.C., and four hundred and eighty years (Kg1 6:1) before the building of Solomon's temple. The time of their sojourning in Egypt was, according to Exo 12:40, the space of four hundred and thirty years. In the LXX., the words are, "The sojourning of the children of Israel which they sojourned in Egypt and in the land of Canaan was four hundred and thirty years;" and the Samaritan version reads, "The sojourning of the children of Israel and of their fathers which they sojourned in the land of Canaan and in the land of Egypt was four hundred and thirty years." In Gen 15:13, the period is prophetically given (in round numbers) as four hundred years. This passage is quoted by Stephen in his defense before the council (Act 7:6). The chronology of the "sojourning" is variously estimated. Those who adopt the longer term reckon thus in the following table: Sojourning Years From the descent of Jacob into Ehypt to the death of Joseph 71 From the death of Joseph to the birth of Moses 278 From the birth of Moses to his flight into Midian 40 From the flight of Moses to his return into Egypt 40 From the return of Moses to the Exodus 1 Total years 430 Others contend for the shorter period of two hundred and fifteen years, holding that the period of four hundred and thirty years comprehends the years from the entrance of Abraham into Canaan (see SEPTUAGINT. and SAMARITAN) to the descent of Jacob into Egypt. They reckon thus: Sojourning Years From Abraham's arrival in Canaan to Isaac's birth 25 From Isaac's birth to that of his twin sons Esau and Jacob 60 From Jacob's birth to the going down into Egypt 130 Total years 215 From Jacob's going down into Egypt to the death of Joseph 71 From death of Joseph to the birth of Moses 64 From birth of Moses to the Exodus 80 Total years in all 430 During the forty years of Moses' sojourn in the land of Midian, the Hebrews in Egypt were being gradually prepared for the great national crisis which was approaching. The plagues that successively fell upon the land loosened the bonds by which Pharaoh held them in slavery, and at length he was eager that they should depart. But the Hebrews must now also be ready to go. They were poor; for generations they had laboured for the Egyptians without wages. They asked gifts from their neighbours around them (Exo 12:35), and these were readily bestowed. And then, as the first step towards their independent national organization, they observed the feast of the Passover, which was now instituted as a perpetual memorial. The blood of the paschal lamb was duly sprinkled on the poor-posts and lintels of all their houses, and they were all within, waiting the next movement in the working out of God's plan. At length the last stroke fell on the land of Egypt. "It came to pass, that at midnight Jehovah smote all the firstborn in the land of Egypt." Pharaoh rose up in the night, and called for Moses and Aaron by night, and said, "Rise up, and get you forth from among my people, both ye and the children of Israel; and go, serve Jehovah, as ye have said. Also take your flocks and your herds, as ye have said, and be gone; and bless me also." Thus was Pharaoh (q.v.) completely humbled and broken down. These words he spoke to Moses and Aaron "seem to gleam through the tears of the humbled king, as he lamented his son snatched from him by so sudden a death, and tremble with a sense of the helplessness which his proud soul at last felt when the avenging hand of God had visited even his palace." The terror-stricken Egyptians now urged the instant departure of the Hebrews. In the midst of the Passover feast, before the dawn of the 15th day of the month Abib (our April nearly), which was to be to them henceforth the beginning of the year, as it was the commencement of a new epoch in their history, every family, with all that appertained to it, was ready for the march, which instantly began under the leadership of the heads of tribes with their various sub-divisions. They moved onward, increasing as they went forward from all the districts of Goshen, over the whole of which they were scattered, to the common centre. Three or four days perhaps elapsed before the whole body of the people were assembled at Rameses, and ready to set out under their leader Moses (Exo 12:37; Num 33:3). This city was at that time the residence of the Egyptian court, and here the interviews between Moses and Pharaoh had taken place. From Rameses they journeyed to Succoth (Exo 12:37), identified with Tel-el-Maskhuta, about 12 miles west of Ismailia. (See PITHOM.) Their third station was Etham (q.v.), Exo 13:20, "in the edge of the wilderness," and was probably a little to the west of the modern town of Ismailia, on the Suez Canal. Here they were commanded "to turn and encamp before Pi-hahiroth, between Migdol and the sea", i.e., to change their route from east to due south. The Lord now assumed the direction of their march in the pillar of cloud by day and of fire by night. They were then led along the west shore of the Red Sea till they came to an extensive camping-ground "before Pi-hahiroth," about 40 miles from Etham. This distance from Etham may have taken three days to traverse, for the number of camping-places by no means indicates the number of days spent on the journey: e.g., it took fully a month to travel from Rameses to the wilderness of Sin (Exo 16:1), yet reference is made to only six camping-places during all that time. The exact spot of their encampment before they crossed the Red Sea cannot be determined. It was probably somewhere near the present site of Suez. Under the direction of God the children of Israel went "forward" from the camp "before Pi-hahiroth," and the sea opened a pathway for them, so that they crossed to the farther shore in safety. The Egyptian host pursued after them, and, attempting to follow through the sea, were overwhelmed in its returning waters, and thus the whole military force of the Egyptians perished. They "sank as lead in the mighty waters" (Exo 15:1; compare Psa 77:16). Having reached the eastern shore of the sea, perhaps a little way to the north of 'Ayun Musa ("the springs of Moses"), there they encamped and rested probably for a day. Here Miriam and the other women sang the triumphal song recorded in Ex. 15:1-21. From 'Ayun Musa they went on for three days through a part of the barren "wilderness of Shur" (Exo 15:22), called also the "wilderness of Etham" (Num 33:8; compare Exo 13:20), without finding water. On the last of these days they came to Marah (q.v.), where the "bitter" water was by a miracle made drinkable. Their next camping-place was Elim (q.v.), where were twelve springs of water and a grove of "threescore and ten" palm trees (Exo 15:27). After a time the children of Israel "took their journey from Elim," and encamped by the Red Sea (Num 33:10), and thence removed to the "wilderness of Sin" (to be distinguished from the wilderness of Zin, Num 20:1), where they again encamped. Here, probably the modern el-Markha, the supply of bread they had brought with them out of Egypt failed. They began to "murmur" for want of bread. God "heard their murmurings" and gave them quails and manna, "bread from heaven" (Ex. 16:4-36). Moses directed that an omer of manna should be put aside and preserved as a perpetual memorial of God's goodness. They now turned inland, and after three encampments came to the rich and fertile valley of Rephidim, in the Wady Feiran. Here they found no water, and again murmured against Moses. Directed by God, Moses procured a miraculous supply of water from the "rock in Horeb," one of the hills of the Sinai group (Exo 17:1); and shortly afterwards the children of Israel here fought their first battle with the Amalekites, whom they smote with the edge of the sword. From the eastern extremity of the Wady Feiran the line of march now probably led through the Wady esh-Sheikh and the Wady Solaf, meeting in the Wady er-Rahah, "the enclosed plain in front of the magnificent cliffs of Ras Sufsafeh." Here they encamped for more than a year (Num 1:1; Num 10:11) before Sinai (q.v.). The different encampments of the children of Israel, from the time of their leaving Egypt till they reached the Promised Land, are mentioned in Ex. 12:37 - 19; Num. 10-21; 33; Deut. 1, 2, 10. It is worthy of notice that there are unmistakable evidences that the Egyptians had a tradition of a great exodus from their country, which could be none other than the exodus of the Hebrews.
Exodus, Book of Exodus is the name given in the LXX. to the second book of the Pentateuch (q.v.). It means "departure" or "outgoing." This name was adopted in the Latin translation, and thence passed into other languages. The Hebrews called it by the first words, according to their custom, Ve-eleh shemoth (i.e., "and these are the names"). It contains, (1.) An account of the increase and growth of the Israelites in Egypt (Ex. 1) (2.) Preparations for their departure out of Egypt (Ex. 2 - 12:36). (3.) Their journey from Egypt to Sinai (Ex. 12:37 - 19:2). (4.) The giving of the law and the establishment of the institutions by which the organization of the people was completed, the theocracy, "a kingdom of priest and an holy nation" (Exo 19:3 - 40). The time comprised in this book, from the death of Joseph to the erection of the tabernacle in the wilderness, is about one hundred and forty-five years, on the supposition that the four hundred and thirty years (Exo 12:40) are to be computed from the time of the promises made to Abraham (Gal 3:17). The authorship of this book, as well as of that of the other books of the Pentateuch, is to be ascribed to Moses. The unanimous voice of tradition and all internal evidences abundantly support this opinion.
Exorcist (Act 19:13). "In that skeptical and therefore superstitious age professional exorcist abounded. Many of these professional exorcists were disreputable Jews, like Simon in Samaria and Elymas in Cyprus (Act 8:9; Act 13:6)." Other references to exorcism as practiced by the Jews are found in Mat 12:27; Mar 9:38; Luk 9:49, Luk 9:50. It would seem that it was an opinion among the Jews that miracles might be wrought by invoking the divine name. Thus also these "vagabond Jews" pretended that they could expel demons. The power of casting out devils was conferred by Christ on his apostles (Mat 10:8), and on the seventy (Luk 10:17), and was exercised by believers after his ascension (Mar 16:17; Act 16:18); but this power was never spoken of as exorcism.
Expiation Guilt is said to be expiated when it is visited with punishment falling on a substitute. Expiation is made for our sins when they are punished not in ourselves but in another who consents to stand in our room. It is that by which reconciliation is effected. Sin is thus said to be "covered" by vicarious satisfaction. The cover or lid of the ark is termed in the LXX. hilasterion, that which covered or shut out the claims and demands of the law against the sins of God's people, whereby he became "propitious" to them. The idea of vicarious expiation runs through the whole Old Testament system of sacrifices. (See PROPITIATION.)
Eye (Heb. 'ain , meaning "flowing"), applied (1.) to a fountain, frequently; (2.) to colour (Num 11:7; R.V., "appearance," marg. "eye"); (3.) the face (Exo 10:5, Exo 10:15; Num 22:5, Num 22:11), in Num 14:14, "face to face" (R.V. marg., "eye to eye"). "Between the eyes", i.e., the forehead (Exo 13:9, Exo 13:16). The expression (Pro 23:31), "when it giveth his colour in the cup," is literally, "when it giveth out [or showeth] its eye." The beads or bubbles of wine are thus spoken of. "To set the eyes" on any one is to view him with favour (Gen 44:21; Job 24:23; Jer 39:12). This word is used figuratively in the expressions an "evil eye" (Mat 20:15), a "bountiful eye" (Pro 22:9), "haughty eyes" (Pro 6:17 marg.), "wanton eyes" (Isa 3:16), "eyes full of adultery" (Pe2 2:14), "the lust of the eyes" (Jo1 2:16). Christians are warned against "eye-service" (Eph 6:6; Col 3:22). Men were sometimes punished by having their eyes put out (Sa1 11:2; Samson, Jdg 16:21; Zedekiah, Kg2 25:7). The custom of painting the eyes is alluded to in Kg2 9:30, R.V.; Jer 4:30; Eze 23:40, a custom which still prevails extensively among Eastern women.