Cotes Pens or enclosures for flocks (Ch2 32:28, "cotes for flocks;" R.V., "flocks in folds").
Cottage (1.) A booth in a vineyard (Isa 1:8); a temporary shed covered with leaves or straw to shelter the watchman that kept the garden. These were slight fabrics, and were removed when no longer needed, or were left to be blown down in winter (Job 27:18). (2.) A lodging-place (rendered "lodge" in Isa 1:8); a slighter structure than the "booth," as the cucumber patch is more temporary than a vineyard (Isa 24:20). It denotes a frail structure of boughs supported on a few poles, which is still in use in the East, or a hammock suspended between trees, in which the watchman was accustomed to sleep during summer. (3.) In Zep 2:6 it is the rendering of the Hebrew keroth, which some suppose to denote rather "pits" (R.V. marg., "caves") or "wells of water," such as shepherds would sink.
Couch (Gen 49:4; Ch1 5:1; Job 7:13; Psa 6:6, etc.), a seat for repose or rest. (See BED.)
Coulter (Sa1 13:20, Sa1 13:21), an agricultural instrument, elsewhere called "ploughshare" (Isa 2:4; Mic 4:3; Joe 3:10). It was the facing-piece of a plough, analogous to the modern coulter.
Council Spoken of counsellors who sat in public trials with the governor of a province (Act 25:12). The Jewish councils were the Sanhedrim, or supreme council of the nation, which had subordinate to it smaller tribunals (the "judgment," perhaps, in Mat 5:21, Mat 5:22) in the cities of Palestine (Mat 10:17; Mar 13:9). In the time of Christ the functions of the Sanhedrim were limited (Joh 16:2; Co2 11:24). In Psa 68:27 the word "council" means simply a company of persons. (R.V. marg., "company.") In ecclesiastical history the word is used to denote an assembly of pastors or bishops for the discussion and regulation of church affairs. The first of these councils was that of the apostles and elders at Jerusalem, of which we have a detailed account in Acts 15.
Counsellor An adviser (Pro 11:14; Pro 15:22), a king's state counsellor (Sa2 15:12) Used once of the Messiah (Isa 9:6). In Mar 15:43; Luk 23:50 the word probably means a member of the Jewish Sanhedrim.
Courses When David was not permitted to build the temple, he proceeded, among the last acts of his life, with the assistance of Zadok and Ahimelech, to organize the priestly and musical services to be conducted in the house of God. (1.) He divided the priests into twenty-four courses (1 Chr. 24:1-19), sixteen being of the house of Eleazar and eight of that of Ithamar. Each course was under a head or chief, and ministered for a week, the order being determined by lot. (2.) The rest of the 38,000 Levites (Ch1 23:4) were divided also into twenty-four courses, each to render some allotted service in public worship: 4,000 in twenty-four courses were set apart as singers and musicians under separate leaders (Ch1 23:25); 4,000 as porters or keepers of the doors and gates of the sanctuary (1 Chr. 26:1-19); and 6,000 as officers and judges to see to the administration of the law in all civil and ecclesiastical matters (Ch1 26:20). This arrangement was re-established by Hezekiah (Ch2 31:2); and afterwards the four sacerdotal courses which are said to have returned from the Captivity were re-divided into the original number of twenty-four by Ezra (Ezr 6:18).
Court The enclosure of the tabernacle (Exo 27:9; Exo 40:8), of the temple (Kg1 6:36), of a prison (Neh 3:25), of a private house (Sa2 17:18), and of a king's palace (Kg2 20:4).
Covenant A contract or agreement between two parties. In the Old Testament the Hebrew word berith is always thus translated. Berith is derived from a root which means "to cut," and hence a covenant is a "cutting," with reference to the cutting or dividing of animals into two parts, and the contracting parties passing between them, in making a covenant (Gen. 15; Jer 34:18, Jer 34:19). The corresponding word in the New Testament Greek is diatheke , which is, however, rendered "testament" generally in the Authorized Version. It ought to be rendered, just as the word berith of the Old Testament, "covenant." This word is used (1.) of a covenant or compact between man and man (Gen 21:32), or between tribes or nations (Sa1 11:1; Jos 9:6, Jos 9:15). In entering into a convenant, Jehovah was solemnly called on to witness the transaction (Gen 31:50), and hence it was called a "covenant of the Lord" (Sa1 20:8). The marriage compact is called "the covenant of God" (Pro 2:17), because the marriage was made in God's name. Wicked men are spoken of as acting as if they had made a "covenant with death" not to destroy them, or with hell not to devour them (Isa 28:15, Isa 28:18). (2.) The word is used with reference to God's revelation of himself in the way of promise or of favour to men. Thus God's promise to Noah after the Flood is called a covenant (Gen. 9; Jer 33:20, "my covenant"). We have an account of God's covernant with Abraham (Gen. 17, compare Lev 26:42), of the covenant of the priesthood (Num 25:12, Num 25:13; Deu 33:9; Neh 13:29), and of the covenant of Sinai (Exo 34:27, Exo 34:28; Lev 26:15), which was afterwards renewed at different times in the history of Israel (Deut. 29; Josh. 24; 2 Chr. 15; 23; 29; 34; Ezra 10; Neh. 9). In conformity with human custom, God's covenant is said to be confirmed with an oath (Deu 4:31; Psa 89:3), and to be accompanied by a sign (Gen. 9; 17). Hence the covenant is called God's "counsel," "oath," "promise" (Psa 89:3, Psa 89:4; Psa 105:8; Heb 6:13; Luk 1:68). God's covenant consists wholly in the bestowal of blessing (Isa 59:21; Jer 31:33, Jer 31:34). The term covenant is also used to designate the regular succession of day and night (Jer 33:20), the Sabbath (Exo 31:16), circumcision (Gen 17:9, Gen 17:10), and in general any ordinance of God (Jer 34:13, Jer 34:14). A "covenant of salt" signifies an everlasting covenant, in the sealing or ratifying of which salt, as an emblem of perpetuity, is used (Num 18:19; Lev 2:13; Ch2 13:5). COVENANT OF WORKS, the constitution under which Adam was placed at his creation. In this covenant, (1.) The contracting parties were (a.) God the moral Governor, and (b.) Adam, a free moral agent, and representative of all his natural posterity (Rom 5:12). (2.) The promise was "life" (Mat 19:16, Mat 19:17; Gal 3:12). (3.) The condition was perfect obedience to the law, the test in this case being abstaining from eating the fruit of the "tree of knowledge," etc. (4.) The penalty was death (Gen 2:16, Gen 2:17). This covenant is also called a covenant of nature, as made with man in his natural or unfallen state; a covenant of life, because "life" was the promise attached to obedience; and a legal covenant, because it demanded perfect obedience to the law. The "tree of life" was the outward sign and seal of that life which was promised in the covenant, and hence it is usually called the seal of that covenant. This covenant is abrogated under the gospel, inasmuch as Christ has fulfilled all its conditions in behalf of his people, and now offers salvation on the condition of faith. It is still in force, however, as it rests on the immutable justice of God, and is binding on all who have not fled to Christ and accepted his righteousness. CONVENANT OF GRACE, the eternal plan of redemption entered into by the three persons of the Godhead, and carried out by them in its several parts. In it the Father represented the Godhead in its indivisible sovereignty, and the Son his people as their surety (Joh 17:4, Joh 17:6, Joh 17:9; Isa 42:6; Psa 89:3). The conditions of this covenant were, (1.) On the part of the Father (a.) all needful preparation to the Son for the accomplishment of his work (Heb 10:5; Isa 42:1); (b.) support in the work (Luk 22:43); and (c.) a glorious reward in the exaltation of Christ when his work was done (Phi 2:6), his investiture with universal dominion (Joh 5:22; Psa 110:1), his having the administration of the covenant committed into his hands (Mat 28:18; Joh 1:12; Joh 17:2; Act 2:33), and in the final salvation of all his people (Isa 35:10; Isa 53:10, Isa 53:11; Jer 31:33; Tit 1:2). (2.) On the part of the Son the conditions were (a.) his becoming incarnate (Gal 4:4, Gal 4:5); and (b.) as the second Adam his representing all his people, assuming their place and undertaking all their obligations under the violated covenant of works; (c.) obeying the law (Psa 40:8; Isa 42:21; Joh 9:4, Joh 9:5), and (d.) suffering its penalty (Isa 53:1; Co2 5:21; Gal 3:13), in their stead. Christ, the mediator of, fulfils all its conditions in behalf of his people, and dispenses to them all its blessings. In Heb 8:6; Heb 9:15; Heb 12:24, this title is given to Christ. (See DISPENSATION.)
Covering of the Eyes Occurs only in Gen 20:16. In the Revised Version the rendering is "it (i.e., Abimelech's present of 1,000 pieces of silver to Abraham) is for thee a covering of the eyes." This has been regarded as an implied advice to Sarah to conform to the custom of married women, and wear a complete veil, covering the eyes as well as the rest of the face.