Church Derived probably from the Greek kuriakon (i.e., "the Lord's house"), which was used by ancient authors for the place of worship. In the New Testament it is the translation of the Greek word ecclesia , which is synonymous with the Hebrew kahal of the Old Testament, both words meaning simply an assembly, the character of which can only be known from the connection in which the word is found. There is no clear instance of its being used for a place of meeting or of worship, although in post-apostolic times it early received this meaning. Nor is this word ever used to denote the inhabitants of a country united in the same profession, as when we say the "Church of England," the "Church of Scotland," etc. We find the word ecclesia used in the following senses in the New Testament: (1.) It is translated "assembly" in the ordinary classical sense (Act 19:32, Act 19:39, Act 19:41). (2.) It denotes the whole body of the redeemed, all those whom the Father has given to Christ, the invisible catholic church (Eph 5:23, Eph 5:25, Eph 5:27, Eph 5:29; Heb 12:23). (3.) A few Christians associated together in observing the ordinances of the gospel are an eccesia (Rom 16:5; Col 4:15). (4.) All the Christians in a particular city, whether they assembled together in one place or in several places for religious worship, were an ecclesia. Thus all the disciples in Antioch, forming several congregations, were one church (Act 13:1); so also we read of the "church of God at Corinth" (Co1 1:2), "the church at Jerusalem" (Act 8:1), "the church of Ephesus" (Rev 2:1), etc. (5.) The whole body of professing Christians throughout the world (Co1 15:9; Gal 1:13; Mat 16:18) are the church of Christ. The church visible "consists of all those throughout the world that profess the true religion, together with their children." It is called "visible" because its members are known and its assemblies are public. Here there is a mixture of "wheat and chaff," of saints and sinners. "God has commanded his people to organize themselves into distinct visible ecclesiastical communities, with constitutions, laws, and officers, badges, ordinances, and discipline, for the great purpose of giving visibility to his kingdom, of making known the gospel of that kingdom, and of gathering in all its elect subjects. Each one of these distinct organized communities which is faithful to the great King is an integral part of the visible church, and all together constitute the catholic or universal visible church." A credible profession of the true religion constitutes a person a member of this church. This is "the kingdom of heaven," whose character and progress are set forth in the parables recorded in Matt. 13. The children of all who thus profess the true religion are members of the visible church along with their parents. Children are included in every covenant God ever made with man. They go along with their parents (Gen 9:9; Gen 12:1; Gen 17:7; Exo 20:5; Deu 29:10). Peter, on the day of Pentecost, at the beginning of the New Testament dispensation, announces the same great principle. "The promise [just as to Abraham and his seed the promises were made] is unto you, and to your children" (Act 2:38, Act 2:39). The children of believing parents are "holy", i.e., are "saints", a title which designates the members of the Christian church (Co1 7:14). (See BAPTISM.) The church invisible "consists of the whole number of the elect that have been, are, or shall be gathered into one under Christ, the head thereof." This is a pure society, the church in which Christ dwells. It is the body of Christ. it is called "invisible" because the greater part of those who constitute it are already in heaven or are yet unborn, and also because its members still on earth cannot certainly be distinguished. The qualifications of membership in it are internal and are hidden. It is unseen except by Him who "searches the heart." "The Lord knoweth them that are his" (Ti2 2:19). The church to which the attributes, prerogatives, and promises appertaining to Christ's kingdom belong, is a spiritual body consisting of all true believers, i.e., the church invisible. (1.) Its unity. God has ever had only one church on earth. We sometimes speak of the Old Testament Church and of the New Testament church, but they are one and the same. The Old Testament church was not to be changed but enlarged (Isa 49:13; Isa 60:1). When the Jews are at length restored, they will not enter a new church, but will be grafted again into "their own olive tree" (Rom 11:18; compare Eph 2:11). The apostles did not set up a new organization. Under their ministry disciples were "added" to the "church" already existing (Act 2:47). (2.) Its universality. It is the "catholic" church; not confined to any particular country or outward organization, but comprehending all believers throughout the whole world. (3.) Its perpetuity. It will continue through all ages to the end of the world. It can never be destroyed. It is an "everlasting kindgdom."
Churl In Isa 32:5 (R.V. marg., "crafty"), means a deceiver. In Sa1 25:3, the word churlish denotes a man that is coarse and ill-natured, or, as the word literally means, "hard." The same Greek word as used by the LXX. here is found in Mat 25:24, and there is rendered "hard."
Chushan-rishathaim Cush of double wickedness, or governor of two presidencies, the king of Mesopotamia who oppressed Israel in the generation immediately following Joshua (Jdg 3:8). We learn from the Tell-el-Amarna tablets that Palestine had been invaded by the forces of Aram-naharaim (A.V., "Mesopotamia") more than once, long before the Exodus, and that at the time they were written the king of Aram-naharaim was still intriguing in Canaan. It is mentioned among the countries which took part in the attack upon Egypt in the reign of Rameses III. (of the Twentieth Dynasty), but as its king is not one of the princes stated to have been conquered by the Pharaoh, it would seem that he did not actually enter Egypt. As the reign of Rameses III. corresponds with the Israelitish occupation of Canaan, it is probable that the Egyptian monuments refer to the oppression of the Israelites by Chushan-rishathaim. Canaan was still regarded as a province of Egypt, so that, in attacking it Chushan-rishathaim would have been considered to be attacking Egypt.
Cilicia A maritime province in the south-east of Asia Minor. Tarsus, the birth-place of Paul, was one of its chief towns, and the seat of a celebrated school of philosophy. Its luxurious climate attracted to it many Greek residents after its incorporation with the Macedonian empire. It was formed into a Roman province, 67 B.C.. The Jews of Cilicia had a synagogue at Jerusalem (Act 6:9). Paul visited it soon after his conversion (Gal 1:21; Act 9:30), and again, on his second missionary journey (Act 15:41), "he went through Syria and Cilicia, confirming the churches." It was famous for its goat's-hair cloth, called cilicium. Paul learned in his youth the trade of making tents of this cloth.
Cinnamon Heb. kinamon , the Cinnamomum zeylanicum of botanists, a tree of the Laurel family, which grows only in India on the Malabar coast, in Ceylon, and China. There is no trace of it in Egypt, and it was unknown in Syria. The inner rind when dried and rolled into cylinders forms the cinnamon of commerce. The fruit and coarser pieces of bark when boiled yield a fragrant oil. It was one of the principal ingredients in the holy anointing oil (Exo 30:23). It is mentioned elsewhere only in Pro 7:17; Sol 4:14; Rev 18:13. The mention of it indicates a very early and extensive commerce carried on between Palestine and the East.
Cinnereth A harp, one of the "fenced cities" of Naphtali (Jos 19:35; compare Deu 3:17). It also denotes, apparently, a district which may have taken its name from the adjacent city or lake of Gennesaret, anciently called "the sea of Chinnereth" (q.v.), and was probably that enclosed district north of Tiberias afterwards called "the plain of Gennesaret." Called Chinneroth (R.V., Chinnereth) Jos 11:2. The phrase "all Cinneroth, with all the land of Naphtali" in Kg1 15:20 is parallel to "the store-houses of the cities of Naphtali" (R.V. marg.) in Ch2 16:4.
Circuit The apparent diurnal revolution of the sun round the earth (Psa 19:6), and the changes of the wind (Ecc 1:6). In Job 22:14, "in the circuit of heaven" (R.V. marg., "on the vault of heaven") means the "arch of heaven," which seems to be bent over our heads.
Circumcision Cutting around. This rite, practised before, as some think, by divers races, was appointed by God to be the special badge of his chosen people, an abiding sign of their consecration to him. It was established as a national ordinance (Gen 17:10, Gen 17:11). In compliance with the divine command, Abraham, though ninety-nine years of age, was circumcised on the same day with Ishmael, who was thirteen years old (Gen 17:24). Slaves, whether homeborn or purchased, were circumcised (Gen 17:12, Gen 17:13); and all foreigners must have their males circumcised before they could enjoy the privileges of Jewish citizenship (Exo 12:48). During the journey through the wilderness, the practice of circumcision fell into disuse, but was resumed by the command of Joshua before they entered the Promised Land (Jos 5:2). It was observed always afterwards among the tribes of israel, although it is not expressly mentioned from the time of the settlement in Canaan till the time of Christ, about 1,450 years. The Jews prided themselves in the possession of this covenant distinction (Jdg 14:3; Jdg 15:18; Sa1 14:6; Sa1 17:26; Sa2 1:20; Eze 31:18). As a rite of the church it ceased when the New Testament times began (Gal 6:15; Col 3:11). Some Jewish Christians sought to impose it, however, on the Gentile converts; but this the apostles resolutely resisted (Act 15:1; Gal 6:12). Our Lord was circumcised, for it "became him to fulfil all righteousness," as of the seed of Abraham, according to the flesh; and Paul "took and circumcised" Timothy (Act 16:3), to avoid giving offence to the Jews. It would render Timothy's labours more acceptable to the Jews. But Paul would by no means consent to the demand that Titus should be circumcised (Gal 2:3). The great point for which he contended was the free admission of uncircumcised Gentiles into the church. He contended successfully in behalf of Titus, even in Jerusalem. In the Old Testament a spiritual idea is attached to circumcision. It was the symbol of purity (Isa 52:1). We read of uncircumcised lips (Exo 6:12, Exo 6:30), ears (Jer 6:10), hearts (Lev 26:41). The fruit of a tree that is unclean is spoken of as uncircumcised (Lev 19:23). It was a sign and seal of the covenant of grace as well as of the national covenant between God and the Hebrews. (1.) It sealed the promises made to Abraham, which related to the commonwealth of Israel, national promises. (2.) But the promises made to Abraham included the promise of redemption (Gal 3:14), a promise which has come upon us. The covenant with Abraham was a dispensation or a specific form of the covenant of grace, and circumcision was a sign and seal of that covenant. It had a spiritual meaning. It signified purification of the heart, inward circumcision effected by the Spirit (Deu 10:16; Deu 30:6; Eze 44:7; Act 7:51; Rom 2:28; Col 2:11). Under the Jewish dispensation, church and state were identical. No one could be a member of the one without also being a member of the other. Circumcision was a sign and seal of membership in both. Every circumcised person bore thereby evidence that he was one of the chosen people, a member of the church of God as it then existed, and consequently also a member of the Jewish commonwealth.
Cistern The rendering of a Hebrew work bor, which means a receptacle for water conveyed to it; distinguished from beer, which denotes a place where water rises on the spot (Jer 2:13; Pro 5:15; Isa 36:16), a fountain. Cisterns are frequently mentioned in Scripture. The scarcity of springs in Palestine made it necessary to collect rain-water in reservoirs and cisterns (Num 21:22). (See WELL.) Empty cisterns were sometimes used as prisons (Jer 38:6; Lam 3:53; Psa 40:2; Psa 69:15). The "pit" into which Joseph was cast (Gen 37:24) was a beer or dry well. There are numerous remains of ancient cisterns in all parts of Palestine.
Citizenship The rights and privileges of a citizen in distinction from a foreigner (Luk 15:15; Luk 19:14; Act 21:39). Under the Mosaic law non-Israelites, with the exception of the Moabites and the Ammonites and others mentioned in Deu 23:1, were admitted to the general privileges of citizenship among the Jews (Exo 12:19; Lev 24:22; Num 15:15; Num 35:15; Deu 10:18; Deu 14:29; Deu 16:10, Deu 16:14). The right of citizenship under the Roman government was granted by the emperor to individuals, and sometimes to provinces, as a favour or as a recompense for services rendered to the state, or for a sum of money (Act 22:28). This "freedom" secured privileges equal to those enjoyed by natives of Rome. Among the most notable of these was the provision that a man could not be bound or imprisoned without a formal trial (Act 22:25, Act 22:26), or scourged (Act 16:37). All Roman citizens had the right of appeal to Caesar (Act 25:11).