Cellar A subterranean vault (Ch1 27:28), a storehouse. The word is also used to denote the treasury of the temple (Kg1 7:51) and of the king (Kg1 14:26). The Hebrew word is rendered "garner" in Joe 1:17, and "armoury" in Jer 50:25.
Cenchrea Millet, the eastern harbour of Corinth, from which it was distant about 9 miles east, and the outlet for its trade with the Asiatic shores of the Mediterranean. When Paul returned from his second missionary journey to Syria, he sailed from this port (Act 18:18). In Rom 16:1 he speaks as if there were at the time of his writing that epistle an organized church there. The western harbour of Corinth was Lechaeum, about a mile and a half from the city. It was the channel of its trade with Italy and the west.
Censer The vessel in which incense was presented on "the golden altar" before the Lord in the temple (Exo 30:1). The priest filled the censer with live coal from the sacred fire on the altar of burnt-offering, and having carried it into the sanctuary, there threw upon the burning coals the sweet incense (Lev 16:12, Lev 16:13), which sent up a cloud of smoke, filling the apartment with fragrance. The censers in daily use were of brass (Num 16:39), and were designated by a different Hebrew name, miktereth (Ch2 26:19; Eze 8:11): while those used on the day of Atonement were of gold, and were denoted by a word (mahtah) meaning "something to take fire with;" LXX. pureion = a fire-pan. Solomon prepared for the temple censers of pure gold (Kg1 7:50; Ch2 4:22). The angel in the Apocalypse is represented with a golden censer (Rev 8:3, Rev 8:5). Paul speaks of the golden censer as belonging to the tabernacle (Heb 9:4). The Greek word thumiaterion , here rendered "censer," may more appropriately denote, as in the margin of Revised Version, "the altar of incense." Paul does not here say that the thumiaterion was in the holiest, for it was in the holy place, but that the holiest had it, i.e., that it belonged to the holiest (Kg1 6:22). It was intimately connected with the high priest's service in the holiest. The manner in which the censer is to be used is described in Num 4:14; Lev 16:12.
Census There are five instances of a census of the Jewish people having been taken. (1.) In the fourth month after the Exodus, when the people were encamped at Sinai. The number of men from twenty years old and upward was then 603,550 (Exo 38:26). (2.) Another census was made just before the entrance into Canaan, when the number was found to be 601,730, showing thus a small decrease (Num 26:51). (3.) The next census was in the time of David, when the number, exclusive of the tribes of Levi and Benjamin, was found to be 1,300,000 (Sa2 24:9; Ch1 21:5). (4.) Solomon made a census of the foreigners in the land, and found 153,600 ablebodied workmen (Ch2 2:17, Ch2 2:18). (5.) After the return from Exile the whole congregation of Israel was numbered,and found to amount to 42,360 (Ezr 2:64). A census was made by the Roman government in the time of our Lord (Luk 2:1). (See TAXING.)
Centurion A Roman officer in command of a hundred men (Mar 15:39, Mar 15:44, Mar 15:45). Cornelius, the first Gentile convert, was a centurion (Act 10:1, Act 10:22). Other centurions are mentioned in Mat 8:5, Mat 8:8, Mat 8:13; Luk 7:2, Luk 7:6; Act 21:32; Act 22:25, Act 22:26; Act 23:17, Act 23:23; Act 24:23; Act 27:1, Act 27:6, Act 27:11, Act 27:31, Act 27:43; Act 28:16. A centurion watched the crucifixion of our Lord (Mat 27:54; Luk 23:47), and when he saw the wonders attending it, exclaimed, "Truly this man was the Son of God." "The centurions mentioned in the New Testament are uniformly spoken of in terms of praise, whether in the Gospels or in the Acts. It is interesting to compare this with the statement of Polybius (vi. 24), that the centurions were chosen by merit, and so were men remarkable not so much for their daring courage as for their deliberation, constancy, and strength of mind.", Dr. Maclear's N. T. Hist.
Cephas A Syriac surname given by Christ to Simon (Joh 1:42), meaning "rock." The Greeks translated it by Petros, and the Latins by Petrus.
Cesarea See CAESAREA.
Chaff The refuse of winnowed corn. It was usually burned (Exo 15:7; Isa 5:24; Mat 3:12). This word sometimes, however, means dried grass or hay (Isa 5:24; Isa 33:11). Chaff is used as a figure of abortive wickedness (Psa 1:4; Mat 3:12). False doctrines are also called chaff (Jer 23:28), or more correctly rendered "chopped straw." The destruction of the wicked, and their powerlessness, are likened to the carrying away of chaff by the wind (Isa 17:13; Hos 13:3; Zep 2:2).
Chain (1.) A part of the insignia of office. A chain of gold was placed about Joseph's neck (Gen 41:42); and one was promised to Daniel (Dan 5:7). It is used as a symbol of sovereignty (Eze 16:11). The breast-plate of the high-priest was fastened to the ephod by golden chains (Exo 39:17, Exo 39:21). (2.) It was used as an ornament (Pro 1:9; Sol 1:10). The Midianites adorned the necks of their camels with chains (Jdg 8:21, Jdg 8:26). (3.) Chains were also used as fetters wherewith prisoners were bound (Jdg 16:21; Sa2 3:34; Kg2 25:7; Jer 39:7). Paul was in this manner bound to a Roman soldier (Acts 28; 20; Eph 6:20; Ti2 1:16). Sometimes, for the sake of greater security, the prisoner was attached by two chains to two soldiers, as in the case of Peter (Act 12:6).
Chalcedony Mentioned only in Rev 21:19, as one of the precious stones in the foundation of the New Jerusalem. The name of this stone is derived from Chalcedon, where it is said to have been first discovered. In modern mineralogy this is the name of an agate-like quartz of a bluish colour. Pliny so names the Indian ruby. The mineral intended in Revelation is probably the Hebrew nophekh, translated "emerald" (Exo 28:18; Exo 39:11; Eze 27:16; Eze 28:13). It is rendered "anthrax" in the LXX., and "carbunculus" in the Vulgate. (See CARBUNCLE.)