Camel From the Hebrew gamal, "to repay" or "requite," as the camel does the care of its master. There are two distinct species of camels, having, however, the common characteristics of being "ruminants without horns, without muzzle, with nostrils forming oblique slits, the upper lip divided and separately movable and extensile, the soles of the feet horny, with two toes covered by claws, the limbs long, the abdomen drawn up, while the neck, long and slender, is bent up and down, the reverse of that of a horse, which is arched." (1.) The Bactrian camel is distinguished by two humps. It is a native of the high table-lands of Central Asia. (2.) The Arabian camel or dromedary, from the Greek dromos , "a runner" (Isa 60:6; Jer 2:23), has but one hump, and is a native of Western Asia or Africa. The camel was early used both for riding and as a beast of burden (Gen 24:64; Gen 37:25), and in war (Sa1 30:17; Isa 21:7). Mention is made of the camel among the cattle given by Pharaoh to Abraham (Gen 12:16). Its flesh was not to be eaten, as it was ranked among unclean animals (Lev 11:4; Deu 14:7). Abraham's servant rode on a camel when he went to fetch a wife for Isaac (Gen 24:10, Gen 24:11). Jacob had camels as a portion of his wealth (Gen 30:43), as Abraham also had (Gen 24:35). He sent a present of thirty milch camels to his brother Esau (Gen 32:15). It appears to have been little in use among the Jews after the conquest. It is, however, mentioned in the history of David (Ch1 27:30), and after the Exile (Ezr 2:67; Neh 7:69). Camels were much in use among other nations in the East. The queen of Sheba came with a caravan of camels when she came to see the wisdom of Solomon (Kg1 10:2; Ch2 9:1). Benhadad of Damascus also sent a present to Elisha, "forty camels' burden" (Kg2 8:9). To show the difficulty in the way of a rich man's entering into the kingdom, our Lord uses the proverbial expression that it was easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle (Mat 19:24). To strain at (rather, out) a gnat and swallow a camel was also a proverbial expression (Mat 23:24), used with reference to those who were careful to avoid small faults, and yet did not hesitate to commit the greatest sins. The Jews carefully filtered their wine before drinking it, for fear of swallowing along with it some insect forbidden in the law as unclean, and yet they omitted openly the "weightier matters" of the law. The raiment worn by John the Baptist was made of camel's hair (Mat 3:4; Mar 1:6), by which he was distinguished from those who resided in royal palaces and wore soft raiment. This was also the case with Elijah (Kg2 1:8), who is called "a hairy man," from his wearing such raiment. "This is one of the most admirable materials for clothing; it keeps out the heat, cold, and rain." The "sackcloth" so often alluded to (Kg2 1:8; Isa 15:3; Zac 13:4, etc.) was probably made of camel's hair.
Camon Full of stalks, a place (Jdg 10:5) where Jair was buried. It has usually been supposed to have been a city of Gilead, on the east of Jordan. It is probably, however, the modern Tell-el-Kaimun, on the southern slopes of Carmel, the Jokneam of Carmel (Jos 12:22; Kg1 4:12), since it is not at all unlikely that after he became judge, Jair might find it more convenient to live on the west side of Jordan; and that he was buried where he had lived.
Camp During their journeys across the wilderness, the twelve tribes formed encampments at the different places where they halted (Exo 16:13; Num 2:3). The diagram here given shows the position of the different tribes and the form of the encampment during the wanderings, according to Num 1:53; 2:2-31; Num 3:29, Num 3:35, Num 3:38; 10:13-28. The area of the camp would be in all about 3 square miles. After the Hebrews entered Palestine, the camps then spoken of were exclusively warlike (Jos 11:5, Jos 11:7; Jdg 5:19, Jdg 5:21; Jdg 7:1; Sa1 29:1; Sa1 30:9, etc.). Arrangement of the Tribal Camps Dan 62,700 Asher 41,500 Naphtali 53,400 Benjamin 35,400 Judah 74,600 Merarites 3,200 North Manasseh 32,200 Gershonites 2,630 Tabernacle Tent of Meeting Moses-Aaron and Priests Issachar 54,400 Kohathites 2,750 Ephraim 40,500 Zebulun 57,400 Gad 45,650 Simeon 59,300 Reuben 46,500
Camphire (Heb. copher ), mentioned in Sol 1:14 (R.V., "henna-flowers"); Sol 4:13 (R.V., "henna"), is the al-henna of the Arabs, a native of Egypt, producing clusters of small white and yellow odoriferous flowers, whence is made the Oleum Cyprineum. From its leaves is made the peculiar auburn dye with which Eastern women stain their nails and the palms of their hands. It is found only at Engedi, on the shore of the Dead Sea. It is known to botanists by the name Lawsonia alba or inermis, a kind of privet, which grows 6 or 8 feet high. The margin of the Authorized Version of the passages above referred to has "or cypress," not with reference to the conifer so called, but to the circumstance that one of the most highly appreciated species of this plant grew in the island of Cyprus.
Cana Reedy, a town of Galilee, near Capernaum. Here our Lord wrought his first miracle, the turning of water into wine (Joh 2:1; Joh 4:46). It is also mentioned as the birth-place of Nathanael (Joh 21:2). It is not mentioned in the Old Testament. It has been identified with the modern Kana el-Jelil, also called Khurbet Kana, a place 8 or 9 miles north of Nazareth. Others have identified it with Kefr Kenna, which lies on the direct road to the Sea of Galilee, about 5 miles north-east of Nazareth, and 12 in a direct course from Tiberias. It is called "Cana of Galilee," to distinguish it from Cana of Asher (Jos 19:28).
Canaan (1.) The fourth son of Ham (Gen 10:6). His descendants were under a curse in consequence of the transgression of his father (Gen 9:22). His eldest son, Zidon, was the father of the Sidonians and Phoenicians. He had eleven sons, who were the founders of as many tribes (Gen 10:15). (2.) The country which derived its name from the preceding. The name as first used by the Phoenicians denoted only the maritime plain on which Sidon was built. But in the time of Moses and Joshua it denoted the whole country to the west of the Jordan and the Dead Sea (Deu 11:30). In Jos 5:12 the LXX. read, "land of the Phoenicians," instead of "land of Canaan." The name signifies "the lowlands," as distinguished from the land of Gilead on the east of Jordan, which was a mountainous district. The extent and boundaries of Canaan are fully set forth in different parts of Scripture (Gen 10:19; Gen 17:8; Num 13:29; Num 34:8). (See CANAANITES, PALESTINE.)
Canaan, The Language of Mentioned in Isa 19:18, denotes the language spoken by the Jews resident in Palestine. The language of the Canaanites and of the Hebrews was substantially the same. This is seen from the fragments of the Phoenician language which still survive, which show the closest analogy to the Hebrew. Yet the subject of the language of the "Canaanites" is very obscure. The cuneiform writing of Babylon, as well as the Babylonian language, was taught in the Canaanitish schools, and the clay tablets of Babylonian literature were stored in the Canaanitish libraries. Even the Babylonian divinities were borrowed by the Canaanites.
Canaanites The descendants of Canaan, the son of Ham. Migrating from their original home, they seem to have reached the Persian Gulf, and to have there so-journed for some time. They thence "spread to the west, across the mountain chain of Lebanon to the very edge of the Mediterranean Sea, occupying all the land which later became Palestine, also to the north-west as far as the mountain chain of Taurus. This group was very numerous, and broken up into a great many peoples, as we can judge from the list of nations (Gen. 10), the 'sons of Canaan.'" Six different tribes are mentioned in Exo 3:8, Exo 3:17; Exo 23:23; Exo 33:2; Exo 34:11. In Exo 13:5 the "Perizzites" are omitted. The "Girgashites" are mentioned in addition to the foregoing in Deu 7:1; Jos 3:10. The "Canaanites," as distinguished from the Amalekites, the Anakim, and the Rephaim, were "dwellers in the lowlands" (Num 13:29), the great plains and valleys, the richest and most important parts of Palestine. Tyre and Sidon, their famous cities, were the centres of great commercial activity; and hence the name "Canaanite" came to signify a "trader" or "merchant" (Job 41:6; Pro 31:24, lit. "Canaanites;" compare Zep 1:11; Eze 17:4). The name "Canaanite" is also sometimes used to designate the non-Israelite inhabitants of the land in general (Gen 12:6; Num 21:3; Jdg 1:10). The Israelites, when they were led to the Promised Land, were commanded utterly to destroy the descendants of Canaan then possessing it (Exo 23:23; Num 33:52, Num 33:53; Deu 20:16, Deu 20:17). This was to be done "by little and little," lest the beasts of the field should increase (Exo 23:29; Deu 7:22, Deu 7:23). The history of these wars of conquest is given in the Book of Joshua. The extermination of these tribes, however, was never fully carried out. Jerusalem was not taken till the time of David (Sa2 5:6, Sa2 5:7). In the days of Solomon bond-service was exacted from the fragments of the tribes still remaining in the land (Kg1 9:20, Kg1 9:21). Even after the return from captivity survivors of five of the Canaanitish tribes were still found in the land. In the Tell-el-Amarna tablets Canaan is found under the forms of Kinakhna and Kinakhkhi. Under the name of Kanana the Canaanites appear on Egyptian monuments, wearing a coat of mail and helmet, and distinguished by the use of spear and javelin and the battle-axe. They were called Phoenicians by the Greeks and Poeni by the Romans. By race the Canaanites were Semitic. They were famous as merchants and seamen, as well as for their artistic skill. The chief object of their worship was the sun-god, who was addressed by the general name of Baal, "lord." Each locality had its special Baal, and the various local Baals were summed up under the name of Baalim, "lords."
Canaanite A name given to the apostle Simon (Mat 10:4; Mar 3:18). The word here does not, however, mean a descendant of Canaan, but is a translation, or rather almost a transliteration, of the Syriac word Kanenyeh (R.V. rendered "Cananaen"), which designates the Jewish sect of the Zealots. Hence he is called elsewhere (Luk 6:15) "Simon Zelotes;" i.e., Simon of the sect of the Zealots. (See SIMON.)
Candace The queen of the Ethiopians whose "eunuch" or chamberlain was converted to Christianity by the instrumentality of Philip the evangelist (Act 8:27). The country which she ruled was called by the Greeks Meroe, in Upper Nubia. It was long the centre of commercial intercourse between Africa and the south of Asia, and hence became famous for its wealth (Isa 45:14). It is somewhat singular that female sovereignty seems to have prevailed in Ethiopia, the name Candace (compare "Pharaoh," "Ptolemy," "Caesar") being a title common to several successive queens. It is probable that Judaism had taken root in Ethiopia at this time, and hence the visit of the queen's treasurer to Jerusalem to keep the feast. There is a tradition that Candace was herself converted to Christianity by her treasurer on his return, and that he became the apostle of Christianity in that whole region, carrying it also into Abyssinia. It is said that he also preached the gospel in Arabia Felix and in Ceylon, where he suffered martyrdom. (See PHILIP.)