Alexander the Great The king of Macedonia, the great conqueror; probably represented in Daniel by the "belly of brass" (Dan 2:32), and the leopard and the he-goat (Dan 7:6; Dan 11:3, Dan 11:4). He succeeded his father Philip, and died at the age of thirty-two from the effects of intemperance, 323 B.C.. His empire was divided among his four generals.
Alexandria The ancient metropolis of Lower Egypt, so called from its founder, Alexander the Great (about 333 B.C.). It was for a long period the greatest of existing cities, for both Nineveh and Babylon had been destroyed, and Rome had not yet risen to greatness. It was the residence of the kings of Egypt for 200 years. It is not mentioned in the Old Testament, and only incidentally in the New. Apollos, eloquent and mighty in the Scriptures, was a native of this city (Act 18:24). See Map, Ancient Alexandria. Many Jews from Alexandria were in Jerusalem, where they had a synagogue (Act 6:9), at the time of Stephen's martyrdom. At one time it is said that as many as 10,000 Jews resided in this city. It possessed a famous library of 700,000 volumes, which was burned by the Saracens (A.D. 642). It was here that the Hebrew Bible was translated into Greek. This is called the Septuagint version, from the tradition that seventy learned men were engaged in executing it. It was, however, not all translated at one time. It was begun 280 B.C., and finished about 200 or 150 B.C.. (See VERSION.)
Algum (Ch2 2:8; Ch2 9:10, Ch2 9:11), the same as almug (Kg1 10:11).
Alien A foreigner, or person born in another country, and therefore not entitled to the rights and privileges of the country where he resides. Among the Hebrews there were two classes of aliens. (1.) Those who were strangers generally, and who owned no landed property. (2.) Strangers dwelling in another country without being naturalized (Lev 22:10; Psa 39:12). Both of these classes were to enjoy, under certain conditions, the same rights as other citizens (Lev 19:33, Lev 19:34; Deu 10:19). They might be naturalized and permitted to enter into the congregation of the Lord by submitting to circumcision and abandoning idolatry (Deu 23:3). This term is used (Eph 2:12) to denote persons who have no interest in Christ.
Allegory Used only in Gal 4:24, where the apostle refers to the history of Isaac the free-born, and Ishmael the slave-born, and makes use of it allegorically. Every parable is an allegory. Nathan (Sa2 12:1) addresses David in an allegorical narrative. In the eightieth Psalm there is a beautiful allegory: "Thou broughtest a vine out of Egypt," etc. In Ecc 12:2, there is a striking allegorical description of old age.
Alleluia The Greek form (Rev 19:1, Rev 19:3, Rev 19:4, Rev 19:6) of the Hebrew Hallelujah = Praise ye Jehovah, which begins or ends several of the psalms (Ps. 106, Psa 111:1, Psa 112:1, Psa 113:1, etc.).
Alliance A treaty between nations, or between individuals, for their mutual advantage. Abraham formed an alliance with some of the Canaanitish princes (Gen 14:13), also with Abimelech (Gen 21:22). Joshua and the elders of Israel entered into an alliance with the Gibeonites (Josh. 9:3-27). When the Israelites entered Palestine they were forbidden to enter into alliances with the inhabitants of the country (Lev 18:3, Lev 18:4; Lev 20:22, Lev 20:23). Solomon formed a league with Hiram (Kg1 5:12). This "brotherly covenant" is referred to 250 years afterwards (Amo 1:9). He also appears to have entered into an alliance with Pharaoh (Kg1 10:28, Kg1 10:29). In the subsequent history of the kingdoms of Judah and Israel various alliances were formed between them and also with neighboring nations at different times. From patriarchal times a covenant of alliance was sealed by the blood of some sacrificial victim. The animal sacrificed was cut in two (except birds), and between these two parts the persons contracting the alliance passed (Gen 15:10). There are frequent allusions to this practice (Jer 34:18). Such alliances were called "covenants of salt" (Num 18:19; Ch2 13:5), salt being the symbol of perpetuity. A pillar was set up as a memorial of the alliance between Laban and Jacob (Gen 31:52). The Jews throughout their whole history attached great importance to fidelity to their engagements. Divine wrath fell upon the violators of them (Jos 9:18; Sa2 21:1, Sa2 21:2; Eze 17:16).
Allon Oak. (1.) The expression in the Authorized Version of Jos 19:33, "from Allon to Zaanannim," is more correctly rendered in the Revised Version, "from the oak in Zaanannim." The word denotes some remarkable tree which stood near Zaanannim, and which served as a landmark. (2.) The son of Jedaiah, of the family of the Simeonites, who expelled the Hamites from the valley of Gedor (Ch1 4:37).
Allon-bachuth Oak of weeping a tree near Bethel, at the spot where Deborah, Rebekah's nurse, was buried (Gen 35:8). Large trees, from their rarity in the plains of Palestine, were frequently designated as landmarks. This particular tree was probably the same as the "palm tree of Deborah" (Jdg 4:5).
Almodad Immeasurable the first named of the sons of Joktan (Gen 10:26), the founder of an Arabian tribe.