Explanatory Notes on the Whole Bible, by John Wesley, [1754-65], at sacred-texts.com
amo 1:1He saw - Received by revelation. Israel - The kingdom of the ten tribes. Jeroboam - The great grand - son of Jehu. The earth - quake - Of which, only this text, and Zac 14:5, make any particular mention.
amo 1:2Will roar - Alluding to the roaring of an hungry lion for prey. Jerusalem - The city God had chosen where he dwelt, the seat of God's instituted worship, and the royal seat of the kingdom as God had settled it, from which in both respects the ten tribes had revolted. The habitations - Where the shepherds found pasturage they pitch their tents, and dwelt therein that they might attend their flocks. And this was the delight and wealth of these men; alluding to which Amos expresses the wealth and delight of the kingdom of Israel. Shall wither - Either blasted, or dried up with drought, and turned into barrenness. So the whole kingdom of the ten tribes, though as fruitful as Carmel should be made horrid and desolate as a wilderness.
amo 1:3For three - This certain number is put for an uncertain: three, that is, many. Of Damascus - Here Damascus is put for the whole kingdom of Syria. Threshed - Treated it with the utmost cruelty. Gilead - There was a country of this name, and a city, possessed by the Reubenites, Gadites, and Manassites; Gilead here is put for the inhabitants of this country and city, whom Hazael, king of Syria most barbarously murdered.
amo 1:4Ben - hadad - Ben - hadad was to the Syrian kings a common name, as Pharaoh to the Egyptian kings, and Caesar to the Roman emperors.
amo 1:5The bar - Literally the bar with which the city gates were shut, and fastened. Of Eden - Some royal seat, of the kings of Syria. Kir - Kir of Media, Isa 22:6, thither did Tiglath - Pilneser carry the conquered Syrians, Kg2 16:9, and placed them captives in that barren mountainous country, about fifteen years after it was foretold by Amos.
amo 1:6Carried away - All the Jews whom they had taken captive. Edom - Their most inveterate enemies. These Edomites were ever ready to enslave, and tyrannize over the Jews, if by any means they could get them into their hands.
amo 1:7A fire - Desolating judgments. Gaza - All the power and strength of Palestine is here included.
amo 1:8Ashkelon - Another city of the Philistines, and a very strong one, which shall perish with the king and the inhabitants thereof.
amo 1:9The brotherly covenant - Which was between Hiram on the one part, and David and Solomon on the other.
amo 1:11Pursue - Watched for, and laid hold on every occasion to oppress Israel. Did tear - As a ravenous and fierce lion tears the prey.
amo 1:12Teman - The metropolis of Idumea, so called from Esau's grandson of that name. Bozrah - This was a very strong city, and one of the chief in the whole kingdom, so that in the menace against Bozrah and Teman, the strength and glory of Edom is threatened with an utter overthrow.
amo 1:13Enlarge their border - By destroying all that dwelt in it, and hereafter might claim a title to it.
amo 1:14With a tempest - With irresistible force, and surprising swiftness.