Vincent's Word Studies, by Marvin R. Vincent, , at sacred-texts.com
1 Timothy 1:1
An apostle of Jesus Christ
This title appears in the salutations of Romans, 1st and 2nd Corinthians, Galatians, Ephesians, Colossians. In Philippians, Paul and Timothy the servants of Jesus Christ. Philemon a prisoner. This formal announcement of apostleship is strange in a private letter.
By the commandment of God (κατ' ἐπιταγὴν θεοῦ)
The phrase in Rom 16:26. Κατ' ἐπιταγὴν absolutely, by commandment, Co1 7:6, Co2 8:8. Paul uses διὰ θελήματος θεοῦ by the will of God. See Co1 1:1; Co2 1:1; Eph 1:1; Col 1:1. Comp. Ti2 1:1.
Our Savior (σωτῆρος ἡμῶν)
Comp. Luk 1:47; Jde 1:25. oP. Six times in the Pastorals. Used of both God and Christ (see Tit 1:3, Tit 1:4; Tit 2:10, Tit 2:13; Tit 3:4, Tit 3:6). The saving of men appears as God's direct will and act, Ti1 2:4; Tit 3:5; Ti2 1:9 as Christ's work, Ti1 1:15, comp. Ti2 2:10. In lxx σωτὴρ occurs twenty times, and in all but two instances, of God.
Jesus Christ which is our hope
The phrase is unique in N.T. Comp. Col 1:27, where, however, the construction is doubtful. Ἑλπὶς hope is predicated of Christ by Ignatius, Eph. xxi.; Philad. v. The salutation as a whole has no parallel in Paul.
1 Timothy 1:2
My own son in the faith (γνησίῳ τέκνῳ ἐν πίστει)
More correctly, "my true child in faith." Comp. Tit 1:4. With these two exceptions, τέκνον or υἱός ἐν πίστει does not occur in N.T. Ἑν πίστει or τῇ πίστει is not come on Paul; see Co1 16:13; Co2 8:7; Co2 13:5; Gal 2:20; Th2 2:13. In the Pastorals, nine times. In Paul joined with ζῇν to live, εἶναι to be, στήκειν to stand, βεβαιοῦσθαι to be established. For γνήσιος true, see Co2 8:8; Phi 2:20; Phi 4:3. It means natural by birth-relation, therefore true or genuine.
This addition to the usual form of salutation is peculiar to the Pastorals.
1 Timothy 1:3
Even as (καθὼς)
An awkward construction, there being nothing to answer to καθὼς.
To abide (προσμεῖναι)
To continue on. The compound does not occur in Paul, but is found in Act 11:23; Act 13:43; Act 18:18.
When I went (πορευόμενος)
Better, was going, or was on my way. The participle cannot refer to Timothy.
Might'st charge (παραγγείλῃς)
See on Act 1:4. Very common in Luke and Acts, but not in Paul. In 1st Timothy alone five times.
Note the indefinite designation of the errorists, and comp. Ti1 1:6; Ti1 4:1; Ti1 5:15, Ti1 5:24; Ti1 6:21. The expression is contemptuous. It is assumed that Timothy knows who they are. This is after the Pauline manner. See Gal 1:7; Gal 2:12; Co1 4:18; Co1 15:12; Co2 3:1; Col 2:4, Col 2:8.
That they teach no other doctrine (μὴ ἑτεροδιδασκαλεῖν)
Better, not to teach a different doctrine. For ἕτερος different, see on Gal 1:6. The verb Pasto. olxx. oClass. The charge is not to teach anything contrary to the sound teaching (Ti1 1:10) or irreconcilable with it. Comp. Gal 1:6; Co2 11:4; Rom 16:17.
1 Timothy 1:4
Give heed (προσέχειν)
oP. Frequent in lxx and Class. Lit. To hold to. Often with τὸν νοῦν the mind, which must be supplied here. It means here not merely to give attention to, but to give assent to. So Act 8:6; Act 16:14; Heb 2:1; Pe2 1:19.
Μῦθος, in its widest sense, means word, speech, conversation or its subject. Hence the talk of men, rumour, report, a saying, a story, true or false; later, a fiction as distinguished from λόγος a historic tale. In Attic prose, commonly a legend of prehistoric Greek times. Thus Plato, Repub. 330 D, οἱ λεγόμενοι μῦθοι περὶ τῶν ἐν Ἅΐδου what are called myths concerning those in Hades. Only once in lxx, Sir. 20:19, in the sense of a saying or story. In N.T. Only in Pastorals, and Pe2 1:16. As to its exact reference here, it is impossible to speak with certainty. Expositors are hopelessly disagreed, some referring it to Jewish, others to Gnostic fancies. It is explained as meaning traditional supplements to the law, allegorical interpretations, Jewish stories of miracles, Rabbinical fabrications, whether in history or doctrine, false doctrines generally, etc. It is to be observed that μῦθοι are called Jewish in Tit 1:14. In Ti1 4:7, they are described as profane and characteristic of old wives. In Ti2 4:4, the word is used absolutely, as here.
Endless genealogies (γενεαλογίαις ἀπεράντοις)
Both words Pasto. For γενεαλογία (olxx) comp. Tit 3:9. Γενεαλογεῖσθαι to trace ancestry, only Heb 7:6; comp. Ch1 5:1, the only instance in lxx. Ἁπέραντος endless, N.T.o. Twice in lxx. By some the genealogies are referred to the Gnostic aeons or series of emanations from the divine unity; by others to the O.T. Genealogies as interpreted allegorically by Philo, and made the basis of a psychological system, or O.T. Genealogies adorned with fables: by others again to genealogical registers proper, used to foster the religious and national pride of the Jews against Gentiles, or to ascertain the descent of the Messiah. Ἁπέραντος from ἀ not, and πέρας limit or terminus. Πέρας may be taken in the sense of object or aim, so that the adjective here may mean without object, useless. (So Chrysostom, Holtzmann, and von Soden.) Others take it in a popular sense, as describing the tedious length of the genealogies (Alford); and others that these matters furnish an inexhaustible subject of study (Weiss). "Fables and endless genealogies" form a single conception, the καὶ and being explanatory, that is to say, and the "endless genealogies" indicating in what the peculiarity of the fables consists.
Rather the which: inasmuch as they.
Afford, furnish, give occasion for. Only twice in Paul. Elsewhere mainly in Luke and Acts.
Better, questionings. N.T.o. olxx. oClass. The simple ζητήσεις in Pastorals, John and Acts. The preposition ἐκ gives the sense of subtle, laborious investigation: inquiring out.
According to the reading οἰκοδομίαν edification. So Vulg. aedificationem. But the correct reading is οἰκονομίαν ordering or dispensation: the scheme or order of salvation devised and administered by God: God's household economy. Ὁικονομία is a Pauline word. With the exception of this instance, only in Paul and Luke. See Eph 1:10; Eph 3:2, Eph 3:9; Col 1:25.
Which is in faith (τὴν ἐν πίστει)
See on Ti1 1:2. Faith is the sphere or clement of its operation.
1 Timothy 1:5
The end of the commandment (τέλος τῆς παραγγελίας)
The article with "Commandment" points back to might'st charge, Ti1 1:3. Rend. therefore, of the charge. Τέλος end, aim, that which the charge contemplates.
See on Gal 5:22. The questionings, on the contrary, engendered strifes (Ti2 2:23). Love to men is meant, as meant as N.T. When the word is used absolutely. See Rom 13:10.
Out of a pure heart (ἐκ καθαρᾶς καρδίας)
Comp. Luk 10:27, "Thou shalt love the Lord thy God out of they whole heart (ἐξ ὅλης καρδίας σου), and in or with (ἐν) thy whole soul," etc. For a pure heart, comp. Ti2 2:22. Καθαρός pure in Paul only Rom 14:20. The phrase a pure heart occurs, outside of the Pastorals only in Pe1 1:22. For καρδία heart see on Rom 1:21.
A good conscience(συνειδήσεως ἀγαθῆς)
Comp Ti2 1:3. Συνείδησις conscience is common in Paul. See on Pe1 3:16.
Faith unfeigned (πίστεως ἀνυποκρίτου)
Ἁνυπόκριτος unfeigned twice in Paul, Rom 12:9; Co2 6:6, both times as an attribute of love. In Jam 3:17, it is an attribute of wisdom, and in Pe1 1:22, of brotherly love. Notice the triad, love, conscience, faith. There is nothing un-Pauline in the association of conscience and faith, although, as a fact, Paul does not formally associate them. In Co1 8:7, Co1 8:10, Co1 8:12, conscience is associated with knowledge.
1 Timothy 1:6
Having swerved (ἀστοχήσαντες)
Pasto. In lxx, Sir. 7:19; 8:9. It means to miss the mark.
Have turned aside (ἐξετράπησαν)
oP. Comp. Ti1 5:15; Ti1 6:20; Ti2 4:4; Heb 12:13.
Vain jangling (ματαιολογίαν)
N.T.o. olxx. oClass. The word illustrates the writer's fondness for unusual compounds. Jangling is an early English word from the old French jangler, comp. jongleur a teller of tales. Hence jangling is empty chatter. So Chaucer,
"Them that jangle of love."
Troil. and Cress ii. 800.
And Piers Ploughman,
"And al day to drynken
At diverse tavernes
And there to jangle and jape."
Vision, Pass. ii. 1069.
"This their jangling I esteem a sport."
Mids. Night's D. iii. 2.
Wiclif, Exo 17:7 (earlier version), uses jangling for wrangling. "And he clepide the name of the place Temptynge for the jangling of the sons of Israel."
1 Timothy 1:7
The participle is explanatory and confirmatory of the preceding statement: since they desire.
Teachers of the law (νομοδιδάσκαλοι)
oP. It occurs in Luk 5:17 and Act 5:34. Νόμος is, apparently, the Mosaic law. These teachers may have been arbitrary interpreters of that law, but in what way, cannot be shown.
Better, though they understand.
What they say - whereof they affirm (ἃ λέγουσιν - περὶ τίνων διαβεβαιοῦνται)
The latter expression is an advance on the former, as appears not only from the verbs themselves, but from the different pronominal expressions. They know not what they say, nor what kind of things they are of which they speak so confidently. The compound διαβεβαιοῦσωαι to affirm, Pasto. Comp. Tit 3:8. The false teachers announce their errors with assurance.
1 Timothy 1:8
Comp. Rom 7:16. Morally excellent and salutary. See on Joh 10:11. This is the only instance of χρᾶσθαι to use with νόμος law.
Pasto. olxx. The nature of the proper use of the law - is indicated by the next clause.
1 Timothy 1:9
The participle is connected with τὶς one, a man, in the preceding clause.
Is not made (οὐ κεῖται)
Lit. Is not laid down, set, appointed. Comp. Th1 3:3. This is the only instance of its use with νόμος law. That usage is frequent in Class. See, for instance, Thucyd. ii. 37.
Morally upright. Not in the Pauline sense of justified by faith. Comp. Ti2 2:22; Ti2 3:16. This appears from the way in which the opposite of righteous is described in the next clause.
Recognizing no law; a sense which accords better with the following context than not having a law, as Co1 9:21.
Only in Pastorals and Hebrews. Better unruly. Disobedient is too specific. It means those who will not come into subjection. It is closely allied with lawless. In the one case no legal obligation is recognized; in the other, subjection to law is refused.
Ungodly - sinners (ἀσεβέσι - ἁμαρτωλοῖς)
The same collocation in Pe1 4:18; Jde 1:15. See on godliness, Pe2 1:3.
Unholy - profane (ἀνοσίοις - βεβήλοις)
Ἁνοσιος unholy, Pasto. See on holiness, Luk 1:75. Βέβηλος profane, comp. Ti1 4:7; Ti1 6:20; Ti2 2:16; Heb 12:16. The verb βεβηλοῦν to profane, Mat 12:5; Act 24:6, and often in lxx. Derived from βηλός threshold (comp. βαίνειν to go). Hence the primary sense is that may be trodden. Comp. Lat. Profanus before the temple, on the ground outside. What is permitted to be trodden by people at large is unhallowed, profane. Esau is called βέβηλος in Heb 12:16, as one who did not regard his birthright as sacred, but as something to be sold in order to supply a common need.
Murderers of fathers - murders of mothers (πατρολῴαις - μητρολῴαις)
Both words Pasto and olxx. Both in Class. More literally, smiters of fathers and mothers, though used in Class. Of parricides and matricides. Derived from ἀλοᾶν to smite or thresh. The simple verb, Co1 9:9, Co1 9:10.
N.T.o. Once in lxx, 2 Macc. 9:28.
1 Timothy 1:10
Them that defile themselves with mankind (ἀρσενοκοίταις)
Only here and Co1 6:9. olxx, oClass.
N.T.o. Once in lxx. Ellicott remarks that this is a repulsive and exaggerated violation of the eighth commandment, as ἀρσενοκοιτεῖν is of the seventh. The penalty of death is attached to it, Exo 21:16.
Perjured persons (ἐπιόρκοις)
N.T.o. Once in lxx, Zac 5:3. See Lev 19:12.
Is contrary to (ἀντίκειται)
Lit. Lies opposite to. Used by Paul and Luke. See Luk 13:17; Gal 5:17.
The sound doctrine (τῇ ὑγιαινούσῃ διδασκαλίᾳ)
A phrase peculiar to the Pastorals. Ὑγιαίνειν to be in good health, Luk 5:31; Luk 7:10; Jo3 1:2. oP. Quite frequent in lxx, and invariably in the literal sense. Often in salutations or dismissals. See 2 Macc 1:10; 9:19; Sa2 14:8; Exo 4:18. In the Pastorals, the verb, which occurs eight times, is six times associated with διδασκαλία teaching, or λόγοι words, and twice with ἐν τῇ πίστει or τῇ πίστει in the faith. The sound teaching (comp. διδαχή teaching, Ti2 4:2; Tit 1:9) which is thus commended is Paul's, who teaches in Christ's name and by his authority (Ti2 1:13; Ti2 2:2, Ti2 2:8). In all the three letters it is called ἀλη.θεια or ἡ ἀλήθεια the truth, the knowledge (ἐπίγνωσις) of which is bound up with salvation. See Ti1 2:4; Ti2 2:25; Ti2 3:7; Tit 1:1. As truth it is sound or healthful. It is the object of faith. To be sound in the faith is, practically, to follow (παρακολουθεῖν) sound teaching or the truth. The subjective characteristic of Christians is εὐσέβεια or θεοσέβεια godliness or piety (Ti1 2:2, Ti1 2:10; Ti1 3:16; Ti1 4:7, Ti1 4:8; Ti1 6:6, Ti1 6:11); and the teaching and knowledge of the truth are represented as κατ' εὐσέβειαν according to godliness (Ti1 6:3; Tit 1:1). Comp. εὐσεβεῖν to show piety, Ti1 5:4. εὐσεβῶς ζῇν to live godly, Ti2 3:12; Tit 2:12; and βίον διάγειν ἐν πάσῃ εὐσεβείᾳ to lead a life in all godliness, Ti1 2:2. The contents of this sound teaching which is according to godliness are not theoretical or dogmatic truth, but Christian ethics, with faith and love. See Ti1 1:14; Ti1 2:15; Ti1 4:12; Ti1 6:11; Ti2 1:13; Ti2 3:10; Tit 2:2. Ἁλήθεια truth is used of moral things, rather than in the high religious sense of Paul. Comp., for instance, Rom 3:7; Rom 9:1; Co1 5:8; Co2 4:2; Co2 11:10; Gal 2:5; Eph 4:21, Eph 4:24; and Ti2 2:25,Ti2 2:26; Ti2 3:7 (comp. Ti2 3:1-9); Ti2 4:3, Ti2 4:4; Tit 1:12 (comp. Tit 1:11, Tit 1:15); Tit 2:4 (comp. Tit 2:1, Tit 2:3); Tit 3:1. Whoever grasps the truth has faith (Ti2 1:13; Ti2 2:18; Ti2 3:8; Tit 1:3 f.). That the ethical character of faith is emphasized, appears from the numerous expressions regarding the false teachers, as Ti1 1:19; Ti1 4:1; Ti1 5:8, Ti1 5:12; Ti1 6:10, Ti1 6:21. There is a tendency to objectify faith, regarding it as something believed rather than as the act of believing. See Ti1 1:19; Ti1 4:1; Ti1 6:10, Ti1 6:21; Tit 1:4. In comparing the ideal of righteousness (Ti1 1:9) with that of Paul, note that it is not denied that Christ is the source of true righteousness; but according to Paul, the man who is not under the law is the man who lives by faith in Christ. Paul emphasizes this. It is faith in Christ which sets one free from the law. Here, the man for whom the law is not made (Ti1 1:9) is the man who is ethically conformed to the norm of sound teaching. The two conceptions do not exclude each other: the sound teaching is according to the gospel (Ti1 1:11), but the point of emphasis is shifted.
1 Timothy 1:11
The connection is with the whole foregoing statement about the law and its application, Ti1 1:9 ff. The writer substantiates what he has just said about the law, by a reference to the gospel. Comp. Rom 2:16.
The glorious gospel of the blessed God (τὸ εὐαγγέλιον τῆς δόξης τοῦ μακαρίου θεοῦ)
More correctly, the gospel of the glory, etc. The phrase as a whole has no parallel in N.T. The nearest approach to it is Co2 4:4. Gospel of God is a Pauline phrase; but μακάριος blessed is not used of God by Paul, is not used of God by Paul, nor elsewhere outside of the pastorals, where it occurs twice, here and Ti1 6:15. For blessed is not used of God by Paul, nor elsewhere outside of the Pastorals, where it occurs twice, here and Ti1 6:15. For blessed see on Mat 5:3. The appearing of the glory of God in Jesus Christ is the contents of the gospel. Comp. Tit 2:13.
Which was committed to my trust (ὃ ἐπιστεύθην ἐγώ)
Or, with which I was intrusted. Comp Tit 1:3; Rom 3:2; Co1 9:17; Gal 2:7; Th1 2:4. The ἐγώ I emphatically asserts the authority of Paul against the "teachers of the law" (Ti1 1:7).
1 Timothy 1:12
Hath enabled (ἐνδυναμώσαντι)
An unclassical word, found in Paul and Acts. See Act 9:22; Phi 4:13. Three times in the Pastorals.
A common Pauline word.
Better appointing. The participle defines counted me faithful. He counted me faithful in that he appointed, etc.
Into the ministry (εἰς διακονίαν)
Better, appointing me to his service. The conventional phrase "the ministry" gives a wrong impression. The term is general, covering every mode of service, either to God or to men. Διάκονοι ministers is used of the secular ruler, Rom 13:4. See also Co1 12:5; Co1 16:15; Co2 3:7, Co2 3:8; Eph 4:12, and on minister, Mat 20:26.
1 Timothy 1:13
Blasphemer - persecutor - injurious (βλάσφημον - διώκτην - ὑβριστήν)
Neither βλάσφημος nor διώκτης is used by Paul. Βλάσφημος in Act 7:11; Pe2 2:11; διώκτης N.T.o.; ὑβριστής in Rom 1:30 only; often in lxx. See on blasphemy Mar 7:22, and comp. Co1 10:30. Ὑβριστής is one whose insolence and contempt of others break forth in wanton and outrageous acts. Paul was ὑβριστής when he persecuted the church. He was ὑβρισθείς shamefully entreated at Philippi (Th1 2:2). Christ prophesies that the Son of man shall be shamefully entreated (ὑβρισθήσεται, Luk 18:32). Similar regretful references of Paul to his former career appear in Act 22:4; Gal 1:13, Gal 1:23. Such a passage may have occurred in some Pauline letters to which this writer had access, or it may be an imitation.
I obtained mercy (ἠλεήθην)
Comp. Ti1 1:16. In speaking of his conversion, Paul uses χάρις grace. See Ti1 1:14, and the apostleship he speaks of himself as one who has obtained mercy (ἠλεημένος) of the Lord to be faithful. Co1 7:25; comp. Co2 4:1.
1 Timothy 1:14
Was exceeding abundant (ὑπερεπλεόνασεν)
Or abounded exceedingly. N.T.o. olxx. oClass. Paul is fond of compounds with ὑπὲρ, which, with a few exceptions, are found only in his writings. In the pastorals there are only three. See Ti1 2:2; Ti2 3:2.
For faith as treated in the Pastorals, see Introduction, and sound doctrine, Ti1 1:10.
1 Timothy 1:15
This is a faithful saying (πιστὸς ὁ λόγος)
Better, faithful is the saying. A favorite phrase in these Epistles. oP. See Ti1 3:1; Ti1 4:9; Ti2 2:11; Tit 3:8.
Worthy of all acceptation (πάσης ἀποδοχῆς ἄξιος)
The phrase only here and Ti1 4:9. Ἁποδοχή Pasto olxx. Comp. Act 2:41, ἀποδεξάμενοι τὸν λόγον received his word. Πάσης all or every describes the reception of which the saying is worthy as complete and excluding all doubt.
Came into the world (ἦλθεν εἰς τὸν κόσμον)
The phrase is unique in the Pastorals, and does not appear in Paul. It is Johannine. See Joh 1:9; Joh 3:19; Joh 11:27; Joh 12:46.
To save sinners (ἁναρτωλοὺς σῶσαι)
The thought is Pauline, but not the phrase. See Luk 9:56; Luk 19:10.
Or foremost. Comp. Co1 15:9, and Eph 3:8. This expression is an advance on those.
1 Timothy 1:16
Not the chief sinner, but the representative instance of God's longsuffering applied to a high-handed transgressor. It is explained by pattern.
All longsuffering (τὴν ἅπασαν μακροθυμίαν)
More correctly, "all his longsuffering." The A.V. misses the possessive force of the article. For longsuffering see on be patient, Jam 5:7. The form ἅπας occurs as an undisputed reading only once in Paul, Eph 6:13, and not there as an adjective. Often in Acts and Luke. This use of the article with the adjective πᾶς or ἅπας is without parallel in Paul.
Or, ensample. Only here and Ti2 1:13. olxx. oClass. An example of the writer's fondness for high-sounding compounds. Paul uses τύπος.
The A.V. conveys the sense more clearly than Rev. "of them," which is ambiguous. The genitive has a possessive sense. He would be their ensample, or an ensample for their benefit.
This verb, so frequent in Paul, occurs six times in the pastorals. In two instances, Ti1 1:11; Tit 1:3, it is passive, in the sense of to be intrusted with. Here in the Pauline sense of believing on Christ. In Ti1 3:16, passive, of Christ believed on in the world. In Ti2 1:12, of God the Father, in whom the writer confides to keep the trust committed to him. In Tit 3:8, of belief in God. With ἐπὶ upon and the dative, Rom 9:33; Rom 10:11; Pe1 2:6 (all citations), and Rom 4:18; Luk 24:25.
Unto life everlasting (εἰς ζωὴν αἰώνιον)
Better, eternal life. See additional not on Th2 1:9. The conception of life eternal is not limited to the future life (as von Soden). Godliness has promise of the life which now is, as well as of that which is to come (Ti1 4:8). The promise of eternal life (Ti2 1:1) and the words who brought life and immortality to light through the gospel (Ti2 1:10) may fairly be taken to cover the present life.
1 Timothy 1:17
King eternal (βασιλεῖ τῶν αἰώνων)
Lit. the king of the ages. Only here and Rev 15:3. Comp. Heb 1:2; Heb 11:3. In lxx, Tob. 6:10. For kindred expressions in lxx, see Exodus 15:18; 1 Samuel 13:13; Psalm 9:7; 28:10; 73:12; 144:13; 145:10. See also additional note on Th2 1:9.
Lit. Incorruptible. In Paul, applied to God only, Rom 1:23.
Applied to God, Col 1:15; Heb 11:27.
The only wise God (μόνῳ θεῷ)
Wise should be omitted. Rend. The only God. Σοφῷ wise was interpolated from Rom 16:27 - the only instance in which Paul applies the term to God. Comp. Jde 1:4, Jde 1:25; Luk 5:21; Joh 5:44.
Honor and glory (τιμὴ καὶ δόξα)
This combination in doxology only here and Rev 5:12, Rev 5:13. Comp. Rev 4:9. In doxologies Paul uses only δόξα glory, with the article, the glory, and with to whom or to him (be).
Forever and ever (εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων)
Lit unto the aeons of the aeons. The formula in Paul, Rom 16:26; Gal 1:5; Phi 4:20. Also in Hebrews and 1 Peter, and often in Revelation The doxology as a whole is unique in N.T.
1 Timothy 1:18
This charge (ταύτην τὴν παραγγελίαν)
See on Ti1 1:5. It refers to what follows, that thou might'st war, etc.
I commit (παρατίθεμαι)
The verb in the active voice means to place beside. In the middle, to deposit or intrust. Only once in Paul, Co1 10:27. Comp. Pe1 4:19.
According to the prophecies which went before on thee (κατὰ τὰς προαγούσας ἐπὶ σὲ προφητείας)
Const, according to with I commit: which went before is to be taken absolutely, and not with on thee: const. prophecies with on these. On thee means concerning thee. The sense of the whole passage is: "I commit this charge unto thee in accordance with prophetic intimations which I formerly received concerning thee." Prophecy is ranked among the foremost of the special spiritual endowments enumerated by Paul. See Rom 12:6; Co1 12:10; Co1 13:2, Co1 13:8; Co1 14:6, Co1 14:22. In Co1 12:28; Eph 4:11, prophets come next after apostles in the list of those whom God has appointed in the church. In Eph 2:20, believers, Jew and Gentile, are built upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets. According to Ti1 4:14, prophecy has previously designated Timothy as the recipient of a special spiritual gift; and the prophecies in our passage are the single expressions or detailed contents of the prophecy mentioned there. Προαγεῖν to go before is not used by Paul. In the Pastorals and Hebrews it appears only as an intransitive verb, and so in the only instance in Luke, Luk 18:39. In Acts always transitive, to bring forth. See Act 12:6; Act 16:30; Act 17:5; Act 25:26.
That by them (ἵνα ἐν αὐταῖς)
Ἵνα that denoting the purport of the charge. By them (ἐν), lit. in them; in their sphere, or, possibly, in the power of these.
Thou mightiest war a good warfare (στρατεύῃ - τὴν καλὴν στρατείαν)
More correctly, the good warfare. Στρατεία war-fare once by Paul, Co2 10:4. Not flight (μάχην), but covering all the particulars of a soldier's service.
1 Timothy 1:19
Not merely having, but holding fast, as in Ti2 1:13.
Faith and a good conscience (πίστιν καὶ ἀγαθὴν συνείδησιν)
The phrase good conscience is not in Paul, although συνείδησις is a Pauline word. The phrase appears once in Acts (Act 23:1), and twice in 1 Peter (Pe1 2:16, Pe1 2:21). In Hebrews evil (πονηρᾶς) conscience and fair (καλὴν) conscience; Heb 10:22; Heb 13:18. The combination faith and good conscience is peculiar to the Pastorals. Comp. Ti1 3:9.
Referring to God conscience.
Having put away (ἀπωσάμενοι)
The A.V. is not strong enough. Better, having thrust from them. It implies willful violence against conscience. Twice in Paul, Rom 11:1, Rom 11:2, and three times in Acts.
Concerning faith have made shipwreck (περὶ τὴν πίστιν ἐναυάγησαν)
Better, "concerning the faith made shipwreck." For a similar use of περὶ concerning, see Act 19:25; Luk 10:40; Ti1 6:21; Ti2 2:18; Ti2 3:8. It is noteworthy that περὶ with the accusative occurs only once in Paul (Phi 2:23). Ναυαγεῖν to make shipwreck only here and Co2 11:25. Nautical metaphors are rare in Paul's writings.
1 Timothy 1:20
Hymenaeus and Alexander
Comp. Ti2 2:17; Ti2 4:14.
Have delivered unto Satan (παρέδωκα τῷ Σατανᾷ)
See on Co1 5:5.
They may learn (παιδευθῶσι)
Neither A.V. nor Rev. gives the true force of the word, which is, may be taught by punishment or disciplined. See on Eph 6:4.