Vincent's Word Studies, by Marvin R. Vincent, , at sacred-texts.com
1 Thessalonians 3:1
Lit. no longer forbearing. See on Co1 9:12 : lxx, Sir. 8:17. For Class. parall. Soph. O. C. 15; Elec. 1118; Eurip. Hippol. 844; Ion 1412. He means that his longing for some personal communication from the Thessalonians became intolerable.
To be left - alone (καταλειφθῆναι - μόνοι)
Implying, as we sent (Th1 3:2) and I sent (Th1 3:5), the previous presence of Timothy with him at Athens.
1 Thessalonians 3:2
Comp. Co2 1:1; Col 1:1; Plm 1:1; Rom 16:23; Co1 1:1; Co1 16:12.
See on Mat 20:26; see on Mar 9:35. Not in the official sense of deacon which occurs only in the Pastorals. Διάκονος minister and διακονία ministry or service are common expressions of service to Christ or to men. Paul habitually uses them in this way. See Act 1:25; Act 6:4. Διάκονοι is used of ministers of Satan, Co2 11:15, and διάκονος of the civil magistrate, Rom 13:4. See Introduction to the Pastoral Epistles.
Omit from text.
To establish (στηρίξαι)
See on Luk 22:32; Introd. to Catholic Epistles, Vol. 1, p. 625; see on Pe1 5:10; see on Pe2 1:12.
1 Thessalonians 3:3
N.T.o olxx. In Class., as early as Homer, of dogs; to wag the tail, fawn (Hom. Od. x. 217; xvi. 6). Hence of persons, to fawn or cringe. The word is apparently used here in the original sense, to be shaken.
We are appointed (κείμεθα)
As Luk 2:34 (see note); Phi 1:17. Comp. Act 14:22, in which occur four of the words used here. For the thought, see Mat 5:10; Mat 10:17; Mat 16:24; Pe1 2:21 ff.; Pe1 4:12; Ti2 3:12.
1 Thessalonians 3:5
The tempter (ὁ πειράζων)
Only here and Mat 4:3. lxx. See on Mat 6:13.
In vain (εἰς κενον)
The phrase only in Paul. See Co2 6:1; Gal 2:2; Phi 2:16. The force of the preposition is fairly represented by to in the phrase to no purpose. lxx has εἰς κενὸν, εἰς τὸ κενὸν, and εἰς κενὰ.
1 Thessalonians 3:6
See on Joh 13:33. Const. with we were comforted (Th1 3:7), not with came.
Good remembrance (μνείαν ἀγαθὴν)
Better kindly remembrance. Comp. Rom 5:7 (see note); Rom 7:12; Tit 2:6; Pe1 2:18. See on Th1 1:3.
1 Thessalonians 3:7
Rev. distress. The derivation from ἄγξειν to press tightly, to choke (Lightfoot, Ellicott) is doubtful. In the sense of urgency, distress, seldom in Class. See Co1 7:26; Co2 6:4; Co2 12:10; Luk 21:23.
1 Thessalonians 3:8
Stand fast (στήκετε)
The sense of firm standing is derived from the context, and does not inhere in the word. In Mar 3:31; Mar 11:25, it means simply to stand. Comp. Phi 4:1. It does not occur earlier than N.T.
1 Thessalonians 3:10
Comp. Eph 3:20. Paul is fond of compounds with ὑπὲρ above. Of the 28 N.T. words compounded with ὑπὲρ, 22 are found in Paul, and 20 of them only there.
Primarily, to adjust, fit together; so mend, Mat 4:21. Of the creation of the world, Heb 11:3. See on Mat 21:16; see on Luk 6:40; see on Pe1 5:10; see on Rom 9:22.
1 Thessalonians 3:11
Lit. make straight. Only in Paul and Luke. See on Luk 1:79, and comp. Th2 3:5. Frequent in lxx.
1 Thessalonians 3:13
With all his saints (μετὰ πάντων τῶν ἁγίων αὐτοῦ)
Saints is often explained as angels; but the meaning is the holy and glorified people of God. Οἱ ἅγιοι is uniformly used of these in N.T. and never of angels unless joined with ἄγγελοι. See Luk 9:26; Mar 8:38; Act 10:22. It is doubtful if οἱ ἅγιοι is used of angels in lxx. Zac 14:5, which is confidently cited as an instance, is quoted at the conclusion of the Didache (xvi. 7), clearly with the sense of glorified believers. Ἅγιοι ἄγγελοι appears Tob. 11:14; 12:15; Job 5:1. Angels has no connection with anything in this Epistle, but glorified believers is closely connected with the matter which was troubling the Thessalonians. See Th1 4:13. This does not exclude the attendance of angels on the Lord's coming (see Mar 8:38; Luk 9:26), but when Paul speaks of such attendance, as Th2 1:7, he says, with the angels (ἀγγέλων) of his power.