Vincent's Word Studies, by Marvin R. Vincent, , at sacred-texts.com
General, but still with a general and slightly reproachful reference to the Jew.
With the sense of condemning.
The judgment (τὸ κρῖμα)
Not the act, but the contents of the judgment.
See on Pe1 5:12. Intimating a process of reasoning.
Thou shalt escape
Thou emphatic, opposed to Jewish self-conceit.
Despisest thou (καταφρονεῖς)
The indicative mood unites a declaration with the question: "Do you despise? Aye, you do."
A favorite word with Paul to describe the quality of the divine attributes and gifts. See Co2 8:9; Eph 1:7, Eph 1:18; Eph 2:4, Eph 2:7; Eph 3:8, Eph 3:16; Phi 4:19; Col 1:27.
See on easy, Mat 11:30.
Forbearance and long-suffering (ἀνοχῆς καὶ μακροθυμίας)
Ἁνοχή forbearance, strictly a holding back. In classical Greek mostly of a truce of arms. It implies something temporary which may pass away under new conditions. Hence used in connection with the passing by of sins before Christ (Rom 3:25). "It is that forbearance or suspense of wrath, that truce with the sinner, which by no means implies that the wrath will not be executed at the last; nay, involves that it certainly will, unless he be found under new conditions of repentance and obedience" (Trench). For μακροθυμία long-suffering, see on Jam 5:7. This reliance on God's tolerance to suspend the rule of His administration in your case is contempt (despisest). Compare Gal 6:7.
Not knowing (ἀγνοῶν)
In that thou dost not know. This very ignorance is contempt.
The continuous present: is leading all the while thou art despising.
See on Mat 3:2; see on Mat 21:29.
Treasurest up (θησαυρίζεις)
Accumulatest. Glancing back to riches.
Possibly a tinge of irony.
Wrath against the day of wrath (ὀργὴν ἐν ἡμέρᾳ ὀργῆς)
A very striking image - treasuring up wrath for one's self. Rev., better, in the day, etc. The sinner stores it away. Its forthcoming is withheld by the forbearance of God. It will break out in the day when God's righteous judgment shall be revealed.
Supply He will render.
Contentious (ἐξ ἐριθείας)
Rev., better, factious. Lit., of faction. See on Jam 3:14. Intriguers; partisan agitators.
Indignation and wrath (ὀργὴ καὶ θυμός)
See on be patient, Jam 5:7.
Tribulation and anguish (θλῖψις καὶ στενοχωρία)
For tribulation, see on Mat 13:21. Στενοχωρία anguish, which occurs only in Paul (Rom 8:35; Co2 6:4; Co2 12:10), literally means narrowness of place. The dominant idea is constraint. In Deu 28:53, Deu 28:57, it describes the confinement of a siege. Trench remarks: "The fitness of this image is attested by the frequency with which, on the other hand, a state of joy is expressed in the Psalms and elsewhere, as a bringing into a large room," Psa 118:5; Sa2 22:20. Aquinas says: loetitia est latitia, joy is breadth.
Respect of persons (προσωπολημψία)
Only once outside of Paul's writings, Jam 2:1, on which see note.
Without law (ἀνόμως)
Both law in the abstract and the Mosaic law. The principle laid down is general, though apparently viewed with special reference to the law of Moses.
In the law (ἐν νόμῳ)
Rev., under law, i.e., within the sphere of. No decision as to the reference to the law of Moses or otherwise can be based on the presence or absence of the article. Νόμος law, is used both with and without the article for the Mosaic law. Cremer correctly says that "the article is usually wanting when the stress is laid, not upon the historical impress and outward form of the law, but upon the conception itself;" or, as Bishop Lightfoot, "law considered as a principle, exemplified no doubt chiefly and signally in the Mosaic law, but very much wider than this in its application."
Shall be judged (κριθήσονται)
The antithesis shall perish suggests a condemnatory judgment. There is no doubt that the simple κρίνω is used in the New Testament in the sense of condemning. See Joh 3:18; Th2 2:12; Heb 13:4. The change from perish to judge is suggested by by the law. "The Jews alone will be, strictly speaking, subjected to a detailed inquiry such as arises from applying the particular articles of a code" (Godet). Both classes of men shall be condemned; in both the result will be perishing, but the judgment by the law is confined to those who have the law.
Like the Jews, who heard it regularly in the synagogues. Only here in Paul. Three times in James. It brings out, better than the participle οἱ ἀκούοντες those that hear, the characteristic feature; those whose business is hearing.
Lit., whenever, supposing a case which may occur at any time.
Rev., properly, Gentiles. There is no article. Not the Gentiles collectively, but Gentiles among whom the supposed case occurs.
Which have not the law (τὰ μὴ νόμον ἔχοντα)
The μὴ not negatives the possession of the law. Rev., which have no law.
Having not the law (νόμον μὴ ἔχοντες)
Here μὴ not negatives the possession of the law. Rev., having no law. It is difficult to indicate the proper emphasis in the English text, since the use of italics is limited to words not in the original.
Which shew (οἵτινες ἐνδείκνυνται)
Rev., better, in that they shew, the double relative specifying the class to which they belong, and therefore the reason for what precedes. Shew, properly, in themselves (ἐν).
The work of the law
The conduct corresponding to the law.
Their conscience also bearing witness (συμμαρτυρούσης αὐτῶν τῆς συνειδήσεως)
For conscience, see on Pe1 3:16. The force of ούν with the verb is therewith; i.e., with the prescript of the law, respecting the agreement or disagreement of the act with it. So Rev.
The meanwhile (μεταξὺ)
Rev. renders with one another. Their thoughts one with another. The phrase μεταξὺ ἀλλήλων is variously explained. Some alternately, now acquitting and now condemning. Others, among themselves, as in internal debate. So Alford, "thought against thought in inner strife." Others again, accusations or vindications carried on between Gentiles and Gentiles. As the other parts of the description refer to the individual soul in itself and not to relations with others, the explanation expressed in Rev. - the mutual relations and interchanges of the individual thoughts - seems preferable.
As distinguished from false teaching Paul's assurance of the truth of the Gospel is shown in his confident assertion that it will form the standard of judgment in the great day.
But the correct reading is εἰ δὲ but if.
Thou art called (ἐπονομάζῃ)
Rev., much better, bearest the name of, bringing out the value which attached to the name Jew, the theocratic title of honor. See on Hebrews, Act 6:1.
Restest in (ἐπαναπαύῃ)
Rev., better, upon, giving the force of ἐπί in the verb. The radical conception of the verb ἀναπαύω is relief. See Mat 11:28. Thou restest with a blind trust in God as thy Father and protector exclusively.
The things that are more excellent (τὰ διαφέροντα)
This may be the meaning, and it is adopted by Rev. with the proper omission of more. But it may also mean the things which differ; in which case we shall render provest instead of approvest. The sense will then be: thou dost test with nice discrimination questions of casuistry. Compare Phi 1:10. The latter interpretation seems preferable, being borne out by the succeeding being instructed.
Being instructed (κατηχούμενος)
Systematically through catechetical and synagoguic instruction. See on Luk 1:4. This formal instruction is the basis of the critical discrimination.
Rev., corrector. Better, because emphasizing the element of discipline or training. See on chastise, Luk 23:16.
Of babes (νηπίων)
The term used by the Jews to designate proselytes or novices. Paul uses it of one not come of legal age, Gal 4:1.
The form - in the law (μόρφωσιν)
Not mere appearance, but the scheme, the correct embodiment of the lineaments of truth and knowledge in the law.
Thou that preachest (ὁ κηρύσσων)
See on Mat 4:17. Stealing is so gross a vice that one may openly denounce it.
The denunciation is not so pronounced. The Talmud charges the crime of adultery upon the three most illustrious Rabbins.
The verb means originally to turn away from a thing on account of the stench. See on abomination, Mat 24:15.
Commit sacrilege (ἱεροσυλεῖς)
Rev. renders according to the etymology, ἱερόν temple, συλάω to despoil; hence rob temples. Some explain, the pillage of idol temples; others, robbing the Jewish temple by embezzlement, withholding the temple tribute, etc. The robbery of temples as practiced by the Jews is inferred from Act 19:37. Compare Josephus, Antiq., 4:8, 10, where he lays down the law not to plunder Gentile temples, nor to seize treasure stored up there in honor of any God.
Trench remarks upon "the mournfully numerous group of words" which express the different aspects of sin. It is ἁμαρτια the missing of a mark; παράβασις the overpassing of a line; παρακοή the disobedience to a voice; παράπτωμα a falling when one should have stood; ἀγνόημα ignorance of what one should know; ἥττημα a diminishing of what should be rendered in full measure; ἀνομία or παρανομία non-observance of law; πλημμέλεια discord.
The primary sense of the preposition παρά is beside or by, with reference to a line or extended surface. Hence it indicates that which is not on its true line but beside it, either in the way of falling short or of going beyond. Thus, in the sense of going beyond, Rom 12:3, to think more highly than he ought (παρ' ὃ δεῖ), where the sense of beyond is fixed by ὑπερφρονεῖν to think beyond or over." So Luk 13:2. In the sense of falling short, Thucydides, 3, 49: "Mitylene came near such peril" (παρὰ τοσοῦτο κινδύνου), as if parallel to the danger but not touching it. Hence παραβάσις differs from the Homeric ὑπερβασία transgression, in that the latter carries only the idea of going beyond or over. A mark or line as a standard is thus implied. Transgression implies something to transgress. With the law came in the possibility off transgressing the law. "Where there is no law there is no transgression" (Rom 4:15). Hence Adam's sin is called a transgression (Rom 5:14), because it was the violation of a definite command. Paul habitually uses the word and its kindred παραβάτης transgressor, of the transgression of a commandment distinctly given (Gal 3:19; Ti1 2:14, Rom 2:25, Rom 2:27). Hence it is peculiarly appropriate here of one who boasts in the law. It thus differs from ἁμαρτία sin (see on sins, Mat 1:21), in that one may sin without being under express law. See Romans 5. Sin (ἁμαρτία) was in the world until the law; i.e. during the period prior to the law. Death reigned from Adam to Moses over those who had not sinned (ἁμαρτήσαντας) after the similitude of Adam's transgression (παραβάσεως). The sin is implicit, the transgression explicit.
Breaker of the law (παραβάτης)
Rev., transgressor. See on Jam 2:11.
Thy circumcision is made uncircumcision
"But if any citizen be found guilty of any great or unmentionable wrong, either in relation to the gods, or his parents, or the state, let the judge deem him to be incurable, remembering what an education and training he has had from youth upward, and yet has not abstained from the greatest of crimes" (Plato, "Laws," 854).
Possibly in allusion to the etymological meaning of Jew, the praised one. Compare Gen 49:8. The word here means the holy satisfaction of God as opposed to Jewish vain-glory.