Vincent's Word Studies, by Marvin R. Vincent, , at sacred-texts.com
Compare Eze 43:2.
Mightily with a strong voice (ἐν ἰσχύΐ́ φωνῇ μεγὰλῃ)
Lit., in strength with a great voice. Omit μεγάλῃ great, and read ἰσχυρᾷ φωνῇ with a mighty voice. So Rev.
Babylon - is fallen
The Rev. improves on the A.V. by placing fallen in the emphatic position of the Greek: "Fallen, fallen is Babylon." Compare Isa 21:9.
Is become (ἐγένετο)
Properly, demons, which Rev., strangely commits to the margin. See on Mar 1:34. See Isa 13:20-22; Isa 34:13-15. Also on Luk 11:24.
See on Pe1 3:19, and see on Act 5:21. Rev., in margin, prison.
The word rendered above hold. Rev., hold. Some, however, explain it, not as a cage where they are kept, but as a place of safety to which they resort.
Only in Revelation, here, Rev 19:17, Rev 19:21. Compare Jer 50:39.
Have drunk (πέπωκεν or πέπωκαν)
Some, however, read πέπτωκαν have fallen. So Rev.
Of the wine (ἐκ τοῦ οἴνου)
Thus if we read have drunk. If we adopt have fallen, ἐκ is instrumental, by. So Rev.
Of the wrath
The wine of fornication has turned to wrath against herself.
The word originally means one on a journey by sea or land, especially for traffic. Hence a merchant as distinguished from κάπηλος a retailer or huckster.
The abundance of her delicacies (τῆς δυνάμεως τοῦ στρήνους αὐτῆς)
Lit., as Rev., the power of her luxury. Στρῆνος is akin to στερεός firm, hard, stubborn (see on steadfast, Pe1 5:9). Hence over-strength, luxury, wantonness. Only here in the New Testament. The kindred verb στρηνιάω to live deliciously occurs Rev 18:7, Rev 18:9.
Come out of her
Compare Jer 51:6, Jer 51:45; Isa 48:20; Isa 52:11; Num 16:26.
Have fellowship with (συγκοινωνήσητε)
This compound verb is not of frequent occurrence in the New Testament. It is found only in Eph 5:11, Phi 4:14, and here. On the kindred noun συγκοινωνὸς companion, see on Rev 1:9.
Have reached (ἠκολούθησαν)
Lit., followed. But the best texts read ἐκολλήθησαν clave. Compare Jer 51:9. For different applications of the verb see on Mat 19:5; see on Luk 15:15; see on Act 5:13. Compare the classical phrase for following up closely a fleeing foe, hoerere in terga hostium, to cleave to the backs of the enemy. See also Zac 14:5 (Sept.), "The valley of the mountains shall reach (ἐγκολληθήσεται) unto Azal." The radical idea of the metaphor is that of following or reaching after so as to be joined to.
Only here in the New Testament. Compare Isa 40:2; Jer 16:18; Zac 9:12. The Levitical law insisted on the double recompense. See Exo 22:4, Exo 22:7, Exo 22:9.
Lived deliciously (ἐστρηνίασεν)
See on Rev 18:3.
Only in Revelation. On the kindred word, βάσανος torment, see on Mat 4:23, Mat 4:24.
I sit a queen and am no widow
See Isa 47:8; Zep 2:15.
Therefore shall her plagues come, etc.
See Isa 47:8, Isa 47:9.
Who judgeth (ὁ κρίνων)
Read κρίνας judged.
Only here, Rev 18:12, and Act 21:3. From γέμω to be full. Hence, literally, lading or cargo. So Rev., in margin.
The main features of the following description are taken from that of the destruction of Tyre, Ezekiel 26, 27.
Fine Linen (βύσσου)
See on Luk 16:19.
See on Luk 16:19.
Properly an adjective, meaning pertaining to the Seres. From Σῆρες Seres, a people of India, perhaps of modern China.
Before the time of Justinian, when silkworms were first brought to Constantinople, it was thought that the Seres gathered or combed the downy substance woven by the worms from the leaves of certain trees. Hence Virgil speaks of the Seres, how they comb (depectant) the fine fleeces from the leaves ("Georgics," ii., 121).
Silk was a costly article of luxury among the Romans, so that Tacitus relates that in the reign of Tiberius a law was passed against "men disgracing themselves with silken garments" ("Annals," ii., 33). "Two hundred years after the age of Pliny," says Gibbon, "the use of pure or even of mixed silks was confined to the female sex, till the opulent citizens of Rome and the provinces were insensibly familiarized with the example of Elagabalos, the first who, by this effeminate habit, had sullied the dignity of an emperor and a man. Aorelian complained that a pound of silk was sold at Rome for twelve ounces of gold" ("Decline and Fall," ch. xl.).
At the time of Justinian the Persians held a monopoly of this trade. Two missionary monks residing in China imparted to Justinian the project of introducing the eggs of the silkworm into Europe, and returning to China concealed the eggs in a hollow cane and so transported them.
See on Mat 27:6.
Thyine wood (ξύλον θύΐ́νον)
Only here in the New Testament. From θυία or θύα the citrus, a North-African tree, a native of Barbary, used as incense and for inlaying. Pliny speaks of a mania among the Romans for tables made of this wood. The most expensive of these were called orbes, circles, because they were massive plates of wood cut from the stem in its whole diameter. Pliny mentions plates four feet in diameter, and nearly six inches thick. The most costly were those taken from near the root, both because the tree was broadest there, and because the wood was dappled and speckled. Hence they were described by different epithets according as the markings resembled those of the tiger, the panther, or the peacock.
See on Pe1 3:7, and see on Act 9:15. Also see on goods, Mat 12:29; see on Mar 3:27; and see on strake sail, Act 27:17.
Of ivory (ἐλεφάντινον)
Only here in the New Testament. References to ivory are frequent in the Old Testament. The navy of Tarshish brought ivory to Solomon with apes and peacocks (Kg1 10:22). His great throne was made of it (Kg1 10:18). Ahab's ivory palace (Kg1 22:39) was probably a house with ivory panels. "Ivory palaces" are mentioned in Psa 45:8, and "houses of ivory" in Amo 3:15. The Assyrians carried on a great trade in this article. On the obelisk in the British Museum the captives or tribute-bearers are represented as carrying tusks. The Egyptians early made use of it in decoration, bringing it mostly from Ethiopia, where, according to Pliny, ivory was so plentiful that the natives made of it door-posts and fences, and stalls for their cattle. In the early ages of Greece ivory was frequently employed for ornamental purposes, for the trappings of horses, the handles of kegs, and the bosses of shields. Homer represents an Asiatic woman staining ivory with purple to form trappings for horses, and describes the reins of chariot-horses as adorned with ivory. The statue of Jupiter by Phidias was of ivory and gold. In the "Odyssey" of Homer, Telemachus thus addresses his companion, the son of Nestor as they contemplate the splendor of Menelaus' palace:
"See, son of Nestor, my beloved friend,
In all these echoing rooms the sheen of brass,
Of gold, of amber and of ivory;
Such is the palace of Olympian Jove."
"Odyssey," iv., 71-74.
From μαρμαίρω to sparkle or glisten.
Mentioned as one of the ingredients of the holy oil for anointing (Exo 30:23), and as a perfume for the bed (Pro 7:17).
And spice (καὶ ἄμωμον)
These words are added by the best texts. A fragrant Indian plant, with seed in grape-like clusters, from which ointment was made. Preparations for the hair were made from it. Virgil, describing the coming golden age, says: "The Assyrian amomum shall spring up as a common plant" ("Eclogue" iv., 25; Compare "Eclogue" iii., 89). Forbiger (Virgil) says that the best was raised in Armenia, a poorer quality in Media and Pontus.
Fine flour (σεμίδαλιν)
Only here in the New Testament.
See on Luk 10:34.
Merchandise of horses
Merchandise is not in the text. It resumes the construction of γόμον merchandise with the genitive in Rev 18:12.
A Latin word though of Gallic origin, rheda. It had four wheels.
The fruits (ἡ ὀπώρα)
Originally, the late summer or early autumn; then, generally, used of the ripe fruits of trees. Only here in the New Testament. Compare the compound φθινοπωρινὰ autumn (trees). See on whose fruit withereth, Jde 1:12, and compare Summer-fruits, Jer 40:10.
That thy soul lusted after (τῆς ἐπιθυμίας τῆς ψυχῆς σοῦ)
Lit., of the desire of thy soul.
From λίπος grease. Hence, literally, fat. Only here in the New Testament. Homer uses it once in the sense of oily or shiny with oil, as the skin anointed after a bath. "Their heads and their fair faces shining" ("Odyssey," xv., 332). So Aristophanes ("Plutus," 616), and of oily, unctuous dishes ("Frogs," 163). Of the oily smoothness of a calm sea, as by Theocritus. The phrase λιπαροὶ πόδες shining feet, i.e., smooth, without wrinkle, is frequent in Homer. Thus, of Agamemnon rising from his bed. "Beneath his shining feet he bound the fair sandals" ("Iliad," ii., 44). Also of the condition of life; rich, comfortable: so Homer, of a prosperous old age, "Odyssey," xi., 136. Of things, bright, fresh. Of soil, fruitful. The city of Athens was called λιπαραὶ, a favorite epithet. Aristophanes plays upon the two senses bright and greasy, saying that if any one flatteringly calls Athens bright, he attaches to it the honor of sardines - oiliness ("Acharnians," 638, 9).
A too indefinite rendering. Better, Rev., sumptuous. See on Luk 23:11; see on Jam 2:2. Mostly in the New Testament of clothing. See on Rev 15:6.
See on Rev 17:4.
From κυβερνάω to govern. Strictly, steersman. Only here and Act 27:11.
All the company in ships (πᾶς ἐπὶ τῶν πλοίων ὁ ὅμιλος)
The best texts substitute ὁ ἐπὶ τόπον πλέων, that saileth anywhere, lit., saileth to a place. So Rev.
Trade by sea (τὴν θάλασσαν ἐργάζονται)
Lit., work the sea, like the Latin mare exercent, live by seafaring. Rev., gain their living by sea.
Cast dust on their heads
Compare Eze 27:30. See on Luk 10:13.
Hath avenged you on her (ἔκρινεν τὸ κρίμα ὑμῶν ἐξ αὐτῆς)
Rev., more literally, hath judged your judgment on her or from her. The idea is that of exacting judgment from (ἐξ). Compare the compound verb ἐκδικεῖς avenge, or exact vengeance from (Rev 6:10). The meaning is either, that judgment which is your due, or what she hath judged concerning you.
A mighty angel (εἷς ἄγγελος ἰσχυρὸς)
Lit., "one strong angel."
A great millstone
See on Mat 18:6.
With violence (ὁρμήματι)
Lit. with an impulse or rush. Only here in the New Testament.
See on Rev 14:2.
Only here in the New Testament. There seems to be no special reason for changing the rendering to minstrels, as Rev. The term music had a much wider signification among the Greeks than that which we attach to it. "The primitive education at Athens consisted of two branches: gymnastics for the body, music for the mind. Music comprehended from the beginning everything appertaining to the province of the nine Muses; not merely learning the use of the lyre or how to bear part in a chorus, but also the hearing, learning, and repeating of poetical compositions, as well as the practice of exact and elegant pronunciation - which latter accomplishment, in a language like the Greek, with long words, measured syllables, and great diversity of accentuation between one word and another, must have been far more difficult to acquire than it is in any modern European language. As the range of ideas enlarged, so the words music and musical teachers acquired an expanded meanings so as to comprehend matter of instruction at once ampler and more diversified. During the middle of the fifth century b.c. at Athens, there came thus to be found among the musical teachers men of the most distinguished abilities and eminence, masters of all the learning and accomplishments of the age, teaching what was known of Astronomy, Geography, and Physics, and capable of holding dialectical discussions with their pupils upon all the various problems then afloat among intellectual men" (Grote, "History of Greece," vi., ch. lxvii.).
Rev., flute-players. Only here and Mat 9:23. The female flute-players, usually dissolute characters, were indispensable attendants at the Greek banquets. Plato makes Eryximachus in "the Symposium," say: "I move that the flute-girl who has just made her appearance, be told to go away and play to herself, or, if she likes, to the women who are within. Today let us have conversation instead" ("Symposium," 176). Again, Socrates says: "The talk about the poets seems to me like a commonplace entertainment to which a vulgar company have recourse; who, because they are not able to converse and amuse one another, while they are drinking, with the sound of their own voices and conversation, by reason of their stupidity, raise the price of flute-girls in the market, hiring for a great sum the voice of a flute instead of their own breath, to be the medium of intercourse among them" ("Protagoras," 347). Compare Isa 24:8; Eze 26:13.
Compare Jer 25:10; Mat 24:41.
Bridegroom - bride
Compare Jer 25:10.
Great men (μεγιστᾶνες)
Rev., princes. See on Rev 6:15.
By thy sorceries (ἐν τῇ φαρμακείᾳ σου)
See on Rev 9:21. Rev., more literally, with thy sorcery.
Were deceived (ἐπλανήθησαν)
Or led astray. See on Mar 12:24.