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Vincent's Word Studies, by Marvin R. Vincent, [1886], at

Luke Chapter 23

Luke 23:2

luk 23:2

We found

In a judicial sense: as the result of their examination before the council.

Luke 23:5

luk 23:5

Were the more fierce (ἐπίσχυον)

Only here in New Testament. The verb means, literally, to grow strong. See on Luk 14:30; and Luk 16:3. Here the sense is, they were more energetic and emphatic. Rev., urgent. Wyc., waxed stronger.

Stirreth up (ἀνασείει)

See on Mar 15:11. The increased urgency is shown by the use of a stronger word than perverteth (Luk 23:2).

Luke 23:6

luk 23:6

Of Galilee

The best texts omit.

Luke 23:7

luk 23:7

Sent (ἀνέπεμψεν)

Lit., sent him up (ανα). Used of sending up to a higher court. Compare Act 25:21, of sending Paul to Caesar. It also means to send back, as in Luk 23:11, and Plm 1:11.

Luke 23:8

luk 23:8

Of a long time (ἐξ ἱκανοῦ)

See on Luk 7:6.

Hoped (ἤλπιζεν)

Imperfect; was hoping - all this long time.

Miracle (σημεῖον)

See on Mat 11:20; and compare Act 2:22, Rev.

Luke 23:9

luk 23:9

Many (ἱκανοῖς)

Compare long, Luk 23:8.

Luke 23:10

luk 23:10

Vehemently (εὐτόνως)

Only here and Act 18:28, of the preaching of Apollos. Originally the word means well-strung; hence, in medical language, of a well-toned body.

Luke 23:11

luk 23:11

Gorgeous (λαμπρὰν)

Lit., bright or brilliant. Compare Act 10:30; Rev 15:6. Wyc. and Tynd., white. Mark has purple (πορφύραν), and Matthew scarlet (κοκκίνην).

Apparel (ἐσθῆτα)

The general term for raiment. Matthew specifies the garment (Mat 27:28). Mark has simply purple (Mar 15:17).

Luke 23:14

luk 23:14

Perverteth (ἀποστρέφοντα)

Another compound of στρέφω, to turn; διαστρέφοντα is rendered by the same word in Luk 23:2. Probably the words are used without any intentional distinction of meaning. Διαστρέφοντα implies more of the idea of distraction (compare Wyc., turning upside down); turning different ways; while ἀποστρέφοντα emphasizes the turning away (ἀπό) of the people from their civil and religious allegiance. So Wyc., turning away.

Examined (ἀνακρίνας)

Originally implying a thorough examination; ἀνά, up, from bottom to top. Technically, of a legal examination.

Luke 23:16

luk 23:16

Chastise (παιδεύσας)

Originally to bring up a child (παῖς). Hence, to instruct; so Act 7:22, of Moses instructed in the wisdom of the Egyptians; and Act 22:3, of Paul instructed in the law. To discipline or correct, as Heb 12:6, Heb 12:7. The word is not synonymous with punish, since it always implies an infliction which contemplates the subject's amendment; and hence answers to chastise or chasten. So Heb 12:10; Rev 3:19. In popular speech chastise and punish are often confounded. Chasten is from the Latin castus, "pure," "chaste ;" and to chasten is, properly, to purify. This meaning underlies even the use of the word by Pilate, who was not likely to be nice in his choice of words. Instead of punishing him with death, he will chastise him, in order to teach him better. So Wyc., I shall deliver him amended.

Luke 23:18

luk 23:18

All together (παμπληθεὶ)

The whole multitude (πλῆθος) of them. Only here in New Testament.

Away (αἶρε)

Lit., take away. Compare Act 21:36; Act 22:22.

Luke 23:19

luk 23:19

Who (ὅστις)

Classifying him. One of such a kind as that he had been imprisoned, etc.

Luke 23:20

luk 23:20

Spake (προσεφώνησεν)

Addressed. Compare Act 21:40; Act 22:2. Always in the New Testament in the sense of to accost, whether an individual or a crowd.

Luke 23:21

luk 23:21

Shouted (ἐπεφώνουν)

Imperfect. Kept shouting. Used by Luke only. Compare Act 12:22; Act 22:24.

Luke 23:22

luk 23:22

Said (εἶπεν)

Dropping the speech-making tone, and simply asking a question.

Luke 23:23

luk 23:23

They were instant (ἐπέκειντο)

Instant, in the sense of urgent, pressing. See on Luk 7:4. Compare Rom 12:12; Ti2 4:2; Luk 7:4; Act 26:7. The verb means to lie upon, and answers to our vulgarism, to lay one's self down to work. Compare Aristophanes, "Knights," 253: κἀπικείμενος βόα, roar with all your might. Lit., roar, lying down to it.

Their voices

Omit of the chief priests.

Prevailed (καίσχυον)

Had power (ἰσχύς) to bear down (κατά) the remonstrances of Pilate. Only here and Mat 16:18.

Luke 23:24

luk 23:24

Gave sentence (ἐπέκρινεν)

Pronounced the final sentence. Only here in New Testament.

Luke 23:26

luk 23:26

Laid hold on (ἐπιλαβόμενοι)

Compare the peculiar word used by Matthew and Mark. See on Mat 5:41.

Luke 23:30

luk 23:30

Hills (βουνοῖς)

Only here and Luk 3:5.

Luke 23:31

luk 23:31

Tree (ξύλῳ)

Originally wood, timber. In later Greek, a tree. Used of the cross by Peter, Act 5:30; Act 10:39; and Pe1 2:24. Compare Gal 3:13.

Luke 23:32

luk 23:32

Two other

The possible omission of a comma before malefactors in the A. V. might make a very awkward and unpleasant statement. Better Rev., two others, malefactors.

Put to death (ἀναιρεθῆναι)

Lit., to take up and carry away; so that the Greek idiom answers to our taken off. So Shakspeare:

"The deep damnation of his taking off."

Macbeth, i., 7.

"Let her who would be rid of him, devise

His speedy taking off."

Lear, v., 1.

Luke 23:33

luk 23:33

Calvary (Κρανίον)

The Greek word is the translation of the Hebrew Golgotha. See on Mat 27:33.

Luke 23:35

luk 23:35


See on Luk 10:18.


See on Luk 16:14.

If he

The A. V. does not give the contemptuous emphasis on οὗτος, this fellow.

Luke 23:36

luk 23:36

Coming to him

Coming up close to the cross.


See on Mat 27:34.

Luke 23:38

luk 23:38


See on Mar 15:26.

Luke 23:39

luk 23:39

Railed (ἐβλασφήμει)

Imperfect: kept up a railing.

Luke 23:41

luk 23:41


Are receding would be better.

Amiss (ἄτοπον)

Lit., out of place, and so strange, eccentric, perverse; as in Th2 3:2, where it is rendered unreasonable. The expression here answers nearly to our familiar phrase, "has done nothing out of the way." Compare Act 28:6; no harm.

Luke 23:42

luk 23:42

Into thy kingdom

Some texts read for εἰς, into, ἐν, in. So Rev. In that case we must understand, "in thy kingly glory."

Luke 23:43

luk 23:43

In Paradise (παραδείσῳ)

Originally an enclosed park, or pleasure-ground. Xenophon uses it of the parks of the Persian kings and nobles. "There (at Celaenae) Cyrus had a palace and a great park (παράδεισος), full of wild animals, which he hunted on horseback....Through the midst of the park flows the river Maeander ("Anabasis," i., 2, 7). And again' "The Greeks encamped near a great and beautiful park, thickly grown with all kinds of trees" (ii., 4, 14.) In the Septuagint, Genesis 2:8, of the garden of Eden. In the Jewish theology, the department of Hades where the blessed souls await the resurrection; and therefore equivalent to Abraham's bosom (Luk 16:22, Luk 16:23). It occurs three times in the New Testament: here; Co2 12:4; Rev 2:7; and always of the abode of the blessed.

"Where'er thou roam'st, one happy soul, we know,

Seen at thy side in woe,

Waits on thy triumph - even as all the blest

With him and Thee shall rest.

Each on his cross, by Thee we hang awhile,

Watching thy patient smile,

Till we have learn'd to say, ' 'Tis justly done,

Only in glory, Lord, thy sinful servant own.'"

Keble, Christian Year.

Luke 23:44

luk 23:44

Sixth hour


Ninth hour

See on Mat 27:46.

Luke 23:45

luk 23:45


See on Mat 27:51.

Luke 23:46

luk 23:46

I commend (παρατίθεμαι)

See on Luk 9:16.

Gave up the ghost (ἐξέπνευσεν)

Lit., breathed out (his life). Wyc., sent out the spirit. See on Mat 27:50.

Luke 23:49

luk 23:49

That followed (συνακολουθοῦσαι)

Lit., followed with (σύν). So Rev. See on Mat 27:55.

Luke 23:50

luk 23:50


See on Mar 15:43. Matthew calls him rich; Mark, honorable; Luke, good and just.

Luke 23:51

luk 23:51

Consented (συγκατατεθειμένος)

Only here in New Testament. Another of Luke's numerous compounds. The Greek student will be struck with the array of compounds, from Luk 23:49 to Luk 23:56, inclusive. The verb means to put (τίθημι), down (κατά), along with (σύν). Hence to put down the same vote or opinion with another: to agree with or assent to.

Luke 23:53

luk 23:53

Linen (σινδόνι)

See on Mar 14:51; and compare Luk 16:19.

Hewn in stone (λαξευτῷ)

Only here in New Testament, and not at all in classical Greek.

Luke 23:56

luk 23:56

Returned (ὑποστρέψασαι)

This word occurs thirty-two times in Luke, and only three times in the rest of the New Testament. It is a significant fact that, reckoning the aggregate space occupied by the four Gospels, nearly one-sixth of the whole amount is occupied with the account of the twenty-four hours beginning with the last supper and ending with the burial of Jesus. There is no day in all Bible history narrated with the fulness of that day. If we possessed the whole life of Christ, written with the same detail, the record would occupy one hundred and eighty volumes as large as the whole Bible.

Next: Luke Chapter 24