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Vincent's Word Studies, by Marvin R. Vincent, [1886], at

Luke Chapter 21

Luke 21:1

luk 21:1


See on Mar 12:41.


Standing last and emphatically in the sentence," Saw them that were casting, etc. - rich men." Not the rich only were casting in. Compare Mar 12:41.

Luke 21:2

luk 21:2


See on Mat 5:3.


See on Mar 12:42.

Luke 21:3

luk 21:3

This poor widow

See on Mar 12:43.

Luke 21:4

luk 21:4

Offerings of God

The best texts omit of God. Rev., more simply, unto the gifts.

Penury (ὑστερήματος)

Lit., lack. Rev., neatly, of her want.

Luke 21:5

luk 21:5


See on Mar 13:1.

Offerings (ἀναθήμασιν)

Only here in New Testament. From ἀνατίθημι, to set up. Hence of something set up in the temple as a votive offering. Such were the golden vines presented by Herod the Great, with bunches of grapes as large as a man, and mounted above the entrance to the holy place. The magnificent porch of the temple was adorned with many such dedicated gifts, such as a golden wreath which Sosius offered after he had taken Jerusalem in conjunction with Herod; and rich flagons which Augustus and his wife had given to the sanctuary. Gifts were bestowed by princes friendly to Israel, both on the temple and on provincial synagogues. The word ἀνάθεμθ (Gal 1:8, Rev.), is the same word, something devoted, and so devoted to evil and accursed. Luke uses the classical form. The other is the common or Hellenistic form. The two forms develop gradually a divergence in meaning; the one signifying devoted in a good, the other in a bad sense. The same process may be observed in other languages. Thus knave, lad, becomes a rascal: villain, a farmer, becomes a scoundrel: cunning, skilful, becomes crafty.

Luke 21:6

luk 21:6

Behold (θεωρεῖτε)

See on Luk 10:18.

Thrown down

See on Mar 13:2.

Luke 21:8

luk 21:8


Rev., rightly, led astray. See on Mat 24:4.

In my name

See on Mat 18:5.

Luke 21:9

luk 21:9

Commotions (ἀκαταστασίας)

From ἀ, not, and καθίστημι, to establish. Hence disestablishments; unsettlements. Rev., tumults.

Be not terrified (μὴ πτοηθῆτε)

Only here and Luk 24:37.

By and by (εὐθέως)

Better as Rev., immediately.

Luke 21:11

luk 21:11


See on Mar 13:7.

Famines and pestilences (λιμοὶ καὶ λοιμοὶ)

Some texts reverse the order of the words. A paronomasia or combination of like-sounding words: limoi, loimoi. Especially common in Paul's epistles.

Fearful sights (φοβητρά)

Only here in New Testament, and rare in classical Greek. In Septuagint, Isaiah 19:17. Not confined to sights, but fearful things. Rev., better, terrors. Used in medical language by Hippocrates, of fearful objects imagined by the sick.

Luke 21:13

luk 21:13

It shall turn (ἀποβήσεται)

Lit., turn out; issue.

Luke 21:14

luk 21:14

To answer

See on answer, Pe1 3:15.

Luke 21:19

luk 21:19

Possess ye (κτήσεσθε)

Wrong. See on Luk 18:12. Rev. rightly, ye shall win.

Luke 21:22

luk 21:22

Vengeance (ἐκδικήσεως)

Of rendering full justice, or satisfaction. See on avenge, Luk 18:3.

Luke 21:23

luk 21:23

Distress (ἀνάγκη)

Originally constraint, necessity; thence force or violence, and in the classical poets, distress, anguish.

Luke 21:24

luk 21:24

Edge (στόματι)

Lit., the mouth. So Wyc. Either in the sense of the foremost part, or picturing the sword as a devouring monster. In Heb 11:33, Heb 11:34, the word is used in both senses: "the mouths of lions;" "the edge of the sword."

Led away captive

See on captives, Luk 4:18.

Trodden down

Denoting the oppression and contempt which shall follow conquest.

Luke 21:25

luk 21:25

Signs (σημεῖα)

See on Mat 24:24.

Distress (συνοχὴ)

Only here and Co2 2:4. Kindred with συνεχομένη, taken (Luk 4:38), on which see note. The original idea of the word is being held in a tight grasp.

With perplexity, the sea and the waves roaring

The A. V. follows the reading ἠχούσης, the participle, roaring. The proper reading is ἠχοῦς the noun, the roaring. Render perplexity for the roaring of the sea, etc. Ἠχώ, roaring, is properly a returned sound, an echo. Generally a ringing sound, as of the blows on an anvil.

Waves (σάλου)

Only here in New Testament. The radical notion of the word is unsteady motion, especially the rolling swell of the sea. Rev., better, billows.

Luke 21:26

luk 21:26

Failing (ἀποψυχόντων)

Only here in New Testament. The word originally means to leave off breathing; to swoon. Thus Homer, when Laertes recognizes Ulysses:

"He threw

Round his dear son his arms. The hardy chief,

Ulysses, drew him fainting (ἀποψύχοντα) to his heart."

Odyssey, xxiv., 846.

So also Sophocles, of Hector dragged behind Achilles' chariot:

"He breathed out his life (ἀπέψυξεν βίον).

Ajax, 1031.

Matthew alone uses the simple verb, ψύχω, to breathe or blow. See on wax cold, Mat 24:12. Luke uses four compounds of this simple verb, all of which are peculiar to him. Compare cool, Luk 16:24; refreshing, Act 3:19; gave up the ghost, Act 5:5, Act 5:10.

Expectation (προσδοκίας)

Only here and Act 12:11.

The world

See on Luk 2:1.

Shall be shaken (σαλευθήσονται)

Compare Mat 11:7; Luk 6:38; Act 4:31; Heb 12:26, Heb 12:27. The root of the verb is the same as that of billows, Luk 21:25.

Luke 21:28

luk 21:28

Look up

See on Luk 13:11. Graphic, as implying being previously bowed down with sorrow.

Redemption (ἀπολύτρωσις)

See on lettest depart, Luk 2:29.

Luke 21:29

luk 21:29


See on Mat 24:32.

Luke 21:30

luk 21:30

Ye see (βλέποντες)

Lit., "looking, ye know," etc. Implying careful observation, with a view to determine the progress of the season.

Know (γινώσκετε)

Perceive would be better.

Luke 21:31

luk 21:31

Come to pass (γινόμενα)

The present participle. Rev., more correctly, "coming to pass'" in process of fulfilment. Compare Mar 13:29.

Luke 21:34

luk 21:34

Overcharged (βαρηζῶσιν)

Weighed down. Compare Luk 9:32; Co2 5:4.

Surfeiting (κραιπάλῃ)

Only here in New Testament. Derivation uncertain: akin to the Latin crapula, intoxication. Trench finds an equivalent in fulsomeness, in its original sense of fulness. In the medical writings it is used of drunken nausea or headache.

Drunkenness (μέθῃ)

Compare are well drunk, Joh 2:10. This and kindred words in the New Testament always refer to intoxication, or that which intoxicates. See note on Joh 2:10.

Cares (μερίμναις)

See on Mat 6:25.

Of this life (βιωτικαῖς)

The rendering is too general; though it might be difficult to give a better. Βίος, life, means life considered either as to its duration (Pe1 4:3); the means of support (Mar 12:44; Luk 8:43; Luk 21:4; Jo1 3:17); or the manner of leading it (Ti1 2:2). The meaning here is pertaining to the support or luxury of life; and so in the only other passages where it occurs, Co1 6:3, Co1 6:4. The parallel is Mat 6:31. Wyc., business of this life.

Suddenly (αἰφνίδιος)

Only here and Th1 5:3.

Luke 21:35

luk 21:35

As a snare

Join with the previous sentence: "come suddenly as a snare." Compare entangle, Mat 22:15.

Luke 21:36

luk 21:36


See on Mar 13:33.

Luke 21:37

luk 21:37

Abode (ηὐλίζετο)

Only here and Mat 21:17.

Luke 21:38

luk 21:38

Came early in the morning (ὤρθριζεν)

Only here in New Testament.

Next: Luke Chapter 22