Vincent's Word Studies, by Marvin R. Vincent, , at sacred-texts.com
To the end that men ought (πρὸς τὸ δεῖν)
Lit., with reference to its being necessary always to pray, etc.
To turn coward or lose heart.
See on Mat 21:37.
The word is too strong. It means do me justice. See on Rom 12:19.
Lest by her continual coming she weary me (ἵνα μὴ εἰς τέλος ἐρχομένη ὑπωπιάζῃ με)
Εἰς τέλος, lit., unto the end, may mean continually; but weary or wear out for ὑπωπιάζῃ is more than doubtful. That word is from ὑπώπιον, the part of the face under the eyes, and means to strike under the eye; to give one a black eye. It is used only once again, by Paul, Co1 9:27, and in its literal sense: "I buffet my body;" treat it as the boxer does his adversary. The more literal sense of this word, and of εἰς τέλος, in the end, or finally, give a sound and much livelier meaning here. "Lest at last she come and assault me." So Goebel and Meyer, and so Wyc., "Lest at the last she, coming, strangle me;" and Tynd., "Lest at the last she come and rail on me." The judge fears lest importunity may culminate in personal violence. Perhaps, also, as Goebel suggests, he intentionally exaggerates his fear.
The unjust judge
Lit., the judge of injustice. See on Luk 16:8.
And shall not God
The emphasis is on God. In the Greek order, "and God, shall he not," etc.
Though he bear long with them
A very difficult passage, and interpretations vary greatly.
(1.) The verb μακροθυμέω means to be long-suffering, or to endure patiently. Such is its usual rendering in the New Testament.
(2.) Them (αὐτοῖς) refers not to the persecutors of God's elect, but to the elect themselves. The Rev. cuts the knot by the most literal of renderings: "and he is long-suffering over (ἐπι) them."
(3.) The secondary meaning of restraining or delaying may fairly be deduced from the verb, and explained either (a) of delaying punishment, or (b) of delaying sympathy or help.
The Am. Rev. adopts the former, and throws the sentence into the form of a question: "And is he slow to punish on their behalf" ( ἐπ' αὐτοῖς) ? I venture to suggest the following: Καὶ not infrequently has the sense of yet, or and yet. So Euripides' "Thou art Jove-born, and yet (καὶ) thy utterance is unjust "("Helena," 1147). Aristophanes: "O crown, depart, and joy go with thee: yet (καὶ) I part from thee unwillingly" ("Knights," 1249). So Joh 9:30 : "Ye know not from whence he is, and yet (καὶ) he hath opened my eyes." Joh 16:32 : "Ye shall leave me alone, and yet (καὶ) I am not alone," etc. Render, then, "Shall not God avenge his own elect, which cry unto him day and night; yet he delayeth help on their behalf," even as the unjust judge delayed to avenge the widow? Surely he will, and that ere long. This rendering, instead of contrasting God with the judge, carries out the parallel. The judge delays through indifference. God delays also, or seems to delay, in order to try his children's faith, or because his purpose is not ripe; but he, too, will do justice to the suppliant. Tynd., Yea, though he defer them.
"He hides himself so wondrously,
As though there were no God;
He is least seen when all the powers
Of ill are most abroad.
O there is less to try our faith,
In our mysterious creed,
Than in the godless look of earth
In these our hours of need.
It is not so, but so it looks;
And we lose courage then;
And doubts will come if God hath kept
His promises to men."
Notwithstanding God is certain to vindicate, will the Son of man find on earth a persistence in faith answering to the widow's
Lit., made nothing of. Rev., set at nought.
Others (τοὺς λοιποὺς)
The expression is stronger. Lit., the rest. They threw all others beside themselves into one class. Rev., correctly, all others.
The other (ἕτερος)
With an implication of his being a different man. See on Mat 6:24.
See on Luk 3:12.
Lit., having been placed. Took his stand. It implies taking up his position ostentatiously; striking an attitude. But not necessarily in a bad sense. See on Luk 19:8; and compare Act 5:20. Standing was the ordinary posture of the Jews in prayer. Compare Mat 6:5; Mar 11:25.
Imperfect: began to pray, or proceeded to pray.
Other men (οἱ λοιποὶ τῶν ἀνθρώπων)
Lit., the rest of men. See on Luk 18:9. A Jewish saying is quoted that s true Rabbin ought to thank God every day of his life; 1, that he was not created a Gentile; 2, that he was not a plebeian; 3, that he was not born a woman.
As the publicans.
Lit., this (one), the publican. This publican here. "He lets us see, even in the general enumeration, that he is thinking of the publican, so, afterward, he does not omit directly to mention him" (Goebel).
Twice in the week
The law required only one fast in the year, that on the great day of Atonement (Lev 16:29; Num 29:7); though public memorial fasts were added, during the Captivity, on the anniversaries of national calamities. The Pharisees fasted every Monday and Thursday during the weeks between the Passover and Pentecost, and again between the Feast of Tabernacles and that of the Dedication of the Temple.
I give tithes (ἀποδεκατῶ)
See on Mat 23:23.
Wrong. The Israelite did not pay tithes of his possessions, but only of his gains - his annual increase. See Gen 28:22; Deu 14:22. Besides, the verb, in the present tense, does not mean to possess, but to acquire; the meaning possess being confined to the perfect and pluperfect. Rev., get. Compare Mat 10:9 (Rev.); Act 22:28; Luk 21:19 (on which see note); Th1 4:4 (Rev.).
In a timid attitude: merely standing not posturing as the Pharisee. See on Luk 18:11.
Some explain, from the sanctuary; others, from the Pharisee.
Lift up his eyes
As worshippers ordinarily.
Be merciful (ἱλάσθητι)
Lit., be propitiated.
A sinner (τῷ ἁμαρτωλῷ)
With the definite article, "the sinner." "He thinks about no other man" (Bengel).
Infants (τὰ βρέφη)
See on Pe1 2:2.
So Mark. Matthew has lay his hands on them and pray.
See on Mat 19:14. Only Mark notes the taking in his arms.
Peculiar to Luke.
Why callest thou me good?
See on Mat 19:17.
Do not commit adultery, etc
Compare the different arrangement of the commandments by the three synoptists.
Yet lackest thou one thing (ἔτι ἕν σοι λείπει)
Lit., still one thing is lacking to thee. Mark alone adds that Jesus, looking upon him, loved him.
He was very sorrowful
Rev., more correctly renders ἐγενήθη, he became. See on Mar 10:22.
The Greek order forms a climax: "rich exceedingly"
See on Mat 19:24.
To go through the eye of a needle (διὰ τρήματος βελόνης εἰσελθεῖν)
Rev., more literally, to enter in through a needle's eye. Both Matthew and Mark use another word for needle (ῥαφίς); see on Mar 10:25. Luke alone has βελόνη, which, besides being an older term, is the peculiar word for the surgical needle. The other word is condemned by the Greek grammarians as barbarous.
The best texts read τὰ ἴδια, our own. So Rev.
By the prophets (διά)
Lit., through; the preposition expressing secondary agency.
See on Luk 1:37.
Were said (λεγόμενα)
Or, more correctly, which were being said to them at the moment.
A stronger word than ἐβόησεν, cried, in the previous verse, which is merely to cry or shout, while this is to cry clamorously; to scream or shriek. Compare Mat 15:23; Mar 5:5; Act 19:28-34.
To be brought unto (ἀχθῆναι πρὸς)
Used by Luke alone in the sense of bringing the sick to Christ. He also uses the compound verb προσάγω, which was a common medical term for bringing the sick to a physician, both in that and in other senses. See Luk 9:41; Act 16:20; Act 27:27.