Vincent's Word Studies, by Marvin R. Vincent, , at sacred-texts.com
Compare Mat 26:30, Mat 26:36-46; Mar 14:26, Mar 14:32-42; Luk 22:39-46.
From χεῖμα, winter, and ῥέω, to flow. Properly, a winter torrent. Only here in the New Testament. Rev., in margin, ravine. In classical Greek it occurs in Demosthenes in the sense of a drain or conduit. It may be taken as equivalent to the Arabic wady, which means a stream and its bed, or properly, the valley of a stream even when the stream is dry.
Which might also be rendered of the cedars, which some editors prefer. There is some uncertainty as to the exact meaning of the word cedar, which occurs frequently, some supposing it to be a general name for the pine family. A tree of dark foliage is mentioned in the Talmud by the name of cedrum. The ravine of Kidron separated the Mount of Olives from the Temple-Mount. Westcott cites from Derenbourg ("On the History and Geography of Palestine") a passage of the Talmud to the effect that on the Mount of Olives there were two cedars, under one of which were four shops for the sale of objects legally pure; and that in one of them pigeons enough were sold for the sacrifices of all Israel. He adds: "Even the mention of Kidron by the secondary and popular name of 'the ravine of the cedars' may contain an allusion to a scandal felt as a grievous burden at the time when the priests gained wealth by the sale of victims by the two cedars." The Kidron is the brook over which David passed, barefoot and weeping, when fleeing from Absalom (Sa2 15:23-30). There King Asa burned the obscene idol of his mother (Kg1 15:13). It was the receptacle for the impurities and abominations of idol-worship, when removed from the temple by the adherents of Jehovah (Ch2 29:16); and, in the time of Josiah, was the common cemetery of the city (Kg2 23:6). In the vision of Ezekiel (Eze 47:5, Eze 47:6, Eze 47:7) he goes round to the eastern gate of the temple, overhanging the defile of Kidron, and sees the waters rushing down into the valley until the stream becomes a mighty river.
Neither John nor Luke give the name Gethsemane.
Which betrayed (ὁ παραδιδοὺς)
The present participle, marking the betrayal as in progress. Literally, who is betraying.
Literally, assembled. The items of this verse are peculiar to John.
A band (τὴν σπεῖραν)
Properly, the band. See on Mar 15:16; also see on centurion, Luk 7:2; and see on Act 21:31. The band, or cohort, was from the Roman garrison in the tower of Antonia.
See on Mat 5:25. Sent from the Sanhedrim.
The temple police
The Synoptists speak of the body which arrested Jesus as ὄχλος, a multitude or rabble; but both Matthew and Mark mention the band (σπεῖρα) later in the narrative (Mat 27:27; Mar 15:16).
Only here in the New Testament. A detail peculiar to John. Though it was full moon, it was feared that Jesus might hide and escape.
That should come (τὰ ἐρχόμενα)
Literally, that are coming. The details in Joh 18:4-9 are peculiar to John.
Of Nazareth (τὸν Ναζωραῖον)
Literally, the Nazarene.
Imperfect tense. Rev., correctly, was standing.
Go their way (ὑπάγειν)
The names of Simon Peter and Malchus are mentioned only by John in connection with this incident. The incident itself is related by all the Evangelists.
Contrary to the rule which forbade the carrying of weapons on a feast-day.
The high priest's servant
See on Mat 26:51.
Luke and John. The others do not specify which ear. For ear John and Mark have ὠτάριον, a diminutive; Luke, οὐς, and Matthew, ὠτίον, a diminutive in form, but not in force. See on Mat 26:51.
Omit thy, and read, the sword.
Only here in the New Testament. From τίθημι, to put. That into which the sword is put.
Compare Mat 26:39; Mar 14:36; Luk 22:42. Peculiar to John.
The captain (χιλίαρχος)
See on Mar 6:21, and see on centurion, Luk 7:2.
Rev., better, seized. It is the technical word for arresting. Literally, took with them, of which there is a suggestion in the modern policeman's phrase, go along with me. Compare Luk 22:54.
This supplies the detail of an examination preliminary to that before the high-priest, which is omitted by the Synoptists.
Only here in the New Testament.
That same year
See on Joh 11:49.
Imperfect, was following.
The other disciple
The correct reading omits the article. Another. Probably John himself.
Not palace, but court, as Rev. See on Mat 26:3; see on Luk 11:21.
Properly, was standing.
The door opening from the street into the court.
Her that kept the door (τῇ θυρωρῷ)
See on Joh 10:3.
The damsel (ἡ παιδίσκη)
See on Act 12:13.
Art thou (μὴ σὺ)
The question is put in a negative form, as if expecting a negative answer: thou art not, art thou?
Showing that she recognized John as a disciple.
It is discouraging to see how the A.V. habitually ignores the imperfect tense, and thus detracts from the liveliness of the narrative. Render, as Rev., were standing.
Fire of coals (ἀνθρακιὰν)
Only here and Joh 21:9. Matthew does not mention the fire. Mark has τὸ φῶς, strictly, the light of the fire. Luke says they had kindled a fire (πῦρ).
Rev., correctly, were warming. So, Joh 18:25, was standing and was warming, for stood and warmed.
Rev., better, teaching.
In the synagogue (ἐν τῇ συναγωγῇ)
The best texts omit the article. Render, in synagogue: when the people were assembled. Like our phrase, in church.
Always resort (πάντοτε συνέρχονται)
For πάντοτε always, read πάντες all. Συνέρχονται is rather come together, assemble. Rev., where all the Jews come together.
Struck - with the palm of his hand (ἔδωκε ῥάπισμα)
Literally, gave a blow. Interpreters differ as to whether it was a blow with a rod, or with the hand. The kindred verb ῥαπίζω, from ῥαπίς, a rod, is etymologically related to ῥαβδίζω, from ῥάβδος, a rod, and occurs Mat 5:39, of smiting on the cheek, and Mat 26:67, where it is distinguished from κολαφίζω, to strike with the fist. This latter passage, however, leaves the question open, since, if the meaning to smite with a rod can be defended, there is nothing to prevent its being understood there in that sense. The earlier meaning of the word was, undoubtedly, according to its etymology, to smite with a rod. So Herodotus of Xerxes. "It is certain that he commanded those who scourged (ῥαπι.ζοντας) the waters (of the Hellespont) to utter, as they lashed them, these barbarian and wicked words" (vii., 35). And again: "The Corinthian captain, Adeimantus, observed, 'Themistocles, at the games they who start too soon are scourged (ῥαπίζονται)'" (viii., 59). It passes, in classical Greek, from this meaning to that of a light blow with the hand. The grammarian Phrynichus (A. D. 180) condemns the use of the word in the sense of striking with the hand, or slapping, as not according to good Attic usage, and says that the proper expression for a blow on the cheek with the open hand is ἐπὶ κόρρης πατάξαι. This shows that the un-Attic phrase had crept into use. In the Septuagint the word is clearly used in the sense of a blow with the hand. See Isa 50:6 : "I gave my cheeks to blows (εἰς ῥαπι.σματα). Hos 11:4, "As a man that smiteth (ῥαπίζων) upon his cheeks" (A.V. and Rev., that take off the yoke on their jaws). In Kg1 22:24, we read, "Zedekiah - smote Micaiah on the cheek (ἐπάταξε ἐπὶ τὴν σιαγόνα)." The word in Joh 18:23, δέρεις, literally, flayest, hence, do beat or thrash (compare Luk 12:47), seems better to suit the meaning strike with a rod; yet in Co2 11:20, that verb is used of smiting in the face (εἰς πρόσωπον δέρει), and in Co1 9:27, where Paul is using the figure of a boxer, he says, "So fight I (πυκτεύω, of boxing, or fighting with the fists), not as one that beateth (δέρων) the air." These examples practically destroy the force of the argument from δέρεις. It is impossible to settle the point conclusively; but, on the whole, it seems as well to retain the rendering of the A.V. and Rev.
Annas had sent (ἀπέστειλεν ὁ Ἄννας)
The best texts insert οὖν, therefore. The rendering of the aorist by the pluperfect here is inadmissible, and is a device to bring this examination of Jesus into harmony with that described in Mat 26:56-68, and to escape the apparent inconsistency between the mention of the high-priest (Caiaphas) as conducting this examination and the statement of Joh 18:13, which implies that this was merely a preliminary examination before Annas. Render, Annas therefore sent him.
Probably He had been unbound during His examination.
The cock crew
The Greek has not the definite article. See on Mat 26:34. The use of the article would seem to mark the time, cock-crowing, rather than the incident.
Present tense, lead.
Hall of judgment (πραιτώριον)
A Latin word, proetorium, transcribed. Originally, the general's tent. In the Roman provinces it was the name for the official residence of the Roman governor, as here. Compare Act 23:35. It came to be applied to any spacious villa or palace. So Juvenal: "To their crimes they are indebted for their gardens, palaces (proetoria), etc." ("Sat.," i., 75). In Rome the term was applied to the proetorian guard, or imperial bodyguard. See on Phi 1:13. Rev., palace.
Used technically of the fourth watch, 3-6 a.m. See Mar 13:35. The Sanhedrim could not hold a legal meeting, especially in capital cases, before sunrise; and in such cases judicial proceedings must be conducted and terminated by day. A condemnation to death, at night, was technically illegal. In capital cases, sentence of condemnation could not be legally pronounced on the day of trial. If the night proceedings were merely preliminary to a formal trial, they would have no validity; if formal, they were, ipso facto, illegal. In either case was the law observed in reference to the second council. According to the Hebrew computation of time, it was held on the same day.
Be defiled (μιανθῶσιν)
Originally, to stain, as with color. So Homer: "Tinges (μιήνῃ) the white ivory with purple." Not necessarily, therefore, in a bad sense, like μολύσω, to besmear or besmirch with filth (Co1 8:7; Rev 3:4). In classical Greek, μιαίνω, the verb here used, is the standing word for profaning or unhallowing. So Sophocles:
"Not even fearing this pollution (μίασμα) dire,
Will I consent to burial. Well I know
That man is powerless to pollute (μιαίνειν) the gods."
And Plato: "And if a homicide... without purification pollutes the agora, or the games, or the temples," etc. ("Laws," 868). See on Pe1 1:4. The defilement in the present case was apprehended from entering a house from which all leaven had not been removed.
Eat the Passover
The purpose of this work forbids our entering upon the much-vexed question of the apparent inconsistency between John and the Synoptists as to the time of celebrating the Passover.
Note the abruptness with which he is introduced as one well known. Two derivations of the name are given. Pilatus, one armed with the pilum or javelin, like Torquatus, one adorned with a collar (torques). Or, a contraction from Pileatus, wearing the pileus or cap, which was the badge of manumitted slaves. Hence some have supposed that he was a freedman. Tacitus refers to him as connected with Christ's death. "The author of that name (Christian), or sect, was Christ, who was capitally punished in the reign of Tiberius, by Pontius Pilate" ("Annals," xv. 44). He was the sixth Roman procurator of Judea.
Not implying Pilate's ignorance of the charge, but his demand for the formal accusation.
Rev., evil-doer. From κακὸν, evil, and ποιέω, to do. Luke uses a different word, κακοῦργος, from κακὸν, evil, and ἔργω, to work. See on Pe1 2:12.
Take ye him (λάβετε αὐτὸν ὑμεῖς)
The A.V. obscures the emphatic force of ὑμεῖς, you. Pilate's words display great practical shrewdness in forcing the Jews to commit themselves to the admission that they desired Christ's death. "Take him yourselves (so Rev.), and judge him according to your law." "By our law," reply the Jews, "he ought to die." But this penalty they could not inflict. "It is not lawful," etc.
By what death (ποίῳ θανάτῳ)
More correctly, by what manner of death. So Rev. Compare Joh 12:32; Mat 20:19. Crucifixion was not a Jewish punishment.
Art thou (σὺ εἷ)
Thou is emphatic. Thou, the despised malefactor.
King of the Jews
The civil title. The theocratic title, king of Israel (Joh 1:49; Joh 12:13) is addressed to Jesus on the cross (Mat 27:42; Mar 15:32) in mockery.
Am I a Jew?
As if Jesus' question implied that Pilate had been taking counsel with the Jews.
Only in this passage in the Gospels, of Christians. Compare Act 13:5; Co1 4:1. Corresponding with Christ as a king.
The imperfect tense, denoting action in progress: would now be striving.
Art thou then (οὐκοῦν εἷ σύ)
The interrogative particle οὐκοῦν, not therefore, occurs only here in the New Testament. It is ironical. In Joh 18:33 the emphasis is on thou: here upon king. So then, after all, thou art a king.
Was I born - came I (γεγέννημαι - ἐλήλυθα)
Both perfects. Have I been born - am I come. So Rev. The Greek order is I for this have been born, etc., throwing the emphasis on Christ's person and destiny. The perfect describes His birth and coming not merely as historical facts, but as abiding in their results. Compare this confession before Pilate (Ti1 6:13) with the corresponding confession before the high-priest (Mat 26:64). "The one, addressed to the Jews, is framed in the language of prophecy; the other, addressed to a Roman, appeals to the universal testimony of conscience. The one speaks of a future manifestation of glory, the other speaking of a present manifestation of truth. The one looks forward to the Return, the other looks backward to the Incarnation" (Westcott).
Of the truth (ἐκ τῆς ἀληθείας)
Literally, out of: sprung from: whose life and words issue from the truth. See on Joh 14:6, and compare Joh 8:47.
Not with the article as in the previous verse, the truth. Jesus meant the absolute truth: Pilate, truth in any particular case. "Pilate's exclamation is neither the expression of an ardent thirst for truth, nor that of the despair of a soul which has long sought it in vain; it is the profession of a frivolous skepticism, such as is frequently met with in the man of the world, and especially in the statesman" (Godet).
Properly, cause of accusation. Rev., crime. See on Mat 27:37, and compare note on Mat 19:10.
Ye have a custom
The word συνήθεια, custom, originally means intimacy, habitual intercourse, and thence naturally passes into the meaning of habit or custom. Only John puts the statement of this custom into the mouth of Pilate. Matthew and Mark relate it as a fact.
At the Passover (ἐν τῷ πάσχα)
More specific than Matthew and Mark, where the expression is general, κατὰ ἑορτήν, at feast-time.
Peculiarly of a loud, importunate cry; a shout. Plato uses it of the howling of a dog: "The yelping hound, howling (κραυγάζουσα) at her Lord" ("Republic," 607). Others, of the cries of spectators in the theaters and of the croak of a raven. See on Mat 15:22.
Assuming John's recollection of a previous "crying out," which he has not recorded.
See on Mat 26:55; see on Mar 11:17; see on Luk 10:30. Matthew calls him a "notable prisoner" (Mat 27:16). Mark states that he had made insurrection, and had committed murder (Mar 15:7), speaking of the insurrection as a well-known event. Luke says, "for some insurrection (στάσιν τινὰ) that had arisen in the city, and for murder" (Luk 23:19). Writing for Gentiles, Luke would not refer to the event as something familiar. Bandits of this kind were numerous in the neighborhood of Jerusalem under the Roman dominion. Their leaders were well known. Josephus describes them by the same word which Matthew uses, ἐπίσημοι, notable. Their depredations were often committed under patriotic pretenses, so that Barabbas might have had influential friends among the people.