Vincent's Word Studies, by Marvin R. Vincent, , at sacred-texts.com
Be offended (σκανδαλισθῆτε)
Rev., made to stumble. In this Gospel only here and Joh 6:61. See on Mat 5:29. Wyc, be not slandered.
They shall put you out of the synagogues
See on Joh 9:22.
Literally, but. They shall excommunicate you, but worse than this, the hour cometh, etc.
The hour cometh that (ἵνα)
Literally, "there cometh an hour in order that." The hour is ordained with that end in view: it comes fraught with the fulfillment of a divine purpose.
Whosoever (πᾶς ὁ)
Literally, everyone who.
Doeth service (λατρείαν προσφέρειν)
Literally, bringeth or offereth service. Λατρεία means, strictly, service for hire, but is used of any service, and frequently of the service of God.
Marks a breaking off of the enumeration of fearful details; but (to say no more of these things),I have spoken these, etc.
At the beginning (ἐξ ἀρχῆς)
Properly, from the beginning. So Rev. The phrase only here and Joh 6:64.
It is expedient (συμφέρει)
From σόν together, and φέρω to bear or bring. The underlying idea of the word is concurrence of circumstances.
Go away (ἀπέλθω)
The different words for go should be noted in this verse, and Joh 16:10. Here, expressing simple departure from a point.
Rev., go. With the notion of going for a purpose, which is expressed in I will send him.
Will reprove (ἐλέγξει)
See on Joh 3:20. Rev., convict.
Of sin - righteousness - judgment (περί)
Literally, concerning. Rev., in respect of. Of gives a wrong impression, viz., that He will convict the world of being sinful, unrighteous, and exposed to judgment. This is true, but the preposition implies more. He will convict the world as respects these three; that is, will convict it of ignorance of their real nature.
Only here and Joh 16:10 in the Gospel. It occurs in the First Epistle and in Revelation.
I go (ὑπάγω)
Withdraw from their sight and earthly fellowship. See on Joh 8:21, and footnote.
Ye see (θεωρεῖτε)
Rev., behold. See on Joh 1:18.
Is judged (κέκριται)
Perfect tense. Rev., therefore, rightly, hath been judged.
See on Joh 10:31; see on Joh 12:6.
See on Joh 13:33. With reference to a future time, when they will be able to bear them.
Spirit of truth
Literally, of the truth. See on Joh 14:7.
Will guide (ὁδηγήσει)
From ὁδός, way, and ἡγέομαι, to lead. The kindred noun, ὁδηγός, guide, leader, occurs Mat 15:14; Act 1:16, etc.
Into all truth (εἰς πᾶσαν τὴν ἀλήθειαν)
Rev., more correctly, into all the truth. Some editors read, ἐν τῇ ἀληθείᾳ πάσῃ, in all the truth. Others, εἰς τὴν ἀλήθειαν πᾶσαν, joining πᾶσαν in an adverbial sense with will guide you: i.e., will guide you wholly into the truth. The Spirit does not reveal all truth to men, but He leads them to the truth as it is in Christ.
Rev., rightly, from himself. See on Joh 7:17.
He shall hear (ἂν ἀκούσῃ)
Some read, ἀκούει, heareth, and omit ἂν, the conditional particle. Ὅσα ἂν ἀκούσῃ, the reading of the Rec. Text, is, strictly, whatsoever things he may have heard.
Will shew (ἀναγγελεῖ)
Better, as Rev., declare. Compare Mar 5:14, Mar 5:19; Act 20:27; Co2 7:7. Also to rehearse; Act 14:27. Used of the formal proclamation of the Christian religion (Act 20:20; Pe1 1:12; Jo1 1:5). See on Act 19:18.
Things to come (τὰ ἐρχόμενα)
The article, omitted by A.V., is important. The meaning is not, He will show you some things to come, but the things that are to come, or the things that are coming. These things are whatsoever He shall hear. The phrase occurs only here in the New Testament.
Shall receive (λήψεται)
Rev., take. See on Joh 3:32.
All things that (πάντα ὅσα)
Literally, all things as many as. Rev., all things whatsoever.
Shall take (λήψεται)
The best texts read λαμβάνει, taketh. The relation between the Son and the Spirit is put by Jesus as present and constant.
Ye shall not see (οὐ θεωρεῖτε)
The present tense: "ye behold me no more." So Rev.
Ye shall see (ὄψεσθε)
A different verb for seeing is used here. For the distinction, see on Joh 1:18. Θεωρέω emphasizes the act of vision, ὁράω, the result. Θεωρέω denotes deliberate contemplation conjoined with mental or spiritual interest. "The vision of wondering contemplation, in which they observed little by little the outward manifestation of the Lord, was changed and transfigured into sight, in which they seized at once, intuitively, all that Christ was. As long as His earthly presence was the object on which their eyes were fixed, their view was necessarily imperfect. His glorified presence showed Him in His true nature" (Westcott).
Because I go unto the Father
The best texts omit.
Rev., correctly, therefore. It is a particle of logical connection, not of time.
He saith (λαλεῖ)
Emphasizing the purport of the saying.
A little while (τὸ μικρόν)
In Joh 16:16, Joh 16:17, without the article. Here the article the or this little while defines the special point of their difficulty; this "little while" of which He speaks.
We cannot tell (οὐκ οἴδαμεν)
Rev., more simply and literally, we know not.
He saith (λαλεῖ)
Emphasizing the form of the saying.
Better, Rev., perceived. See on Joh 2:24.
Weep - lament - be sorrowful (κλαύσετε - θρηνήσετε - λυπηθήσεσθε)
Of these three words, the last is the most general in meaning, expressing every species of pain, of body or of soul, and not necessarily the outward manifestation of sorrow. Both the other words denote audible expressions of grief. Θρηνέω marks the more formal expression. It means to utter a dirge over the dead. Thus Homer, of the mourning over Hector in Troy:
"On a fair couch they laid the corse, and placed
Singers beside it leaders of the dirge (θρηνων),
Who sang (ἐθρήνεον) a sorrowful, lamenting strain,
And all the women answered it with sobs."
"Iliad," xxiv. 720-722.
The verb occurs Mat 11:17; Luk 7:32; Luk 23:27. Κλαίω means audible weeping, the crying of children, as distinguished from δακρύω, to shed tears, to weep silently, which occurs but once in the New Testament, of Jesus' weeping (Joh 11:35). See on Luk 7:32.
A woman (ἡ γυνὴ)
Literally, the woman. The generic article marking the woman as representing her sex: woman as such.
She is in travail
A common Old Testament image of sorrow issuing in joy. See Isa 21:3; Isa 26:17; Isa 66:7; Hos 13:13; Mic 4:9, Mic 4:10.
The anguish (τῆς θλίψεως)
Commonly rendered affliction or tribulation in A.V. See on Mat 13:21.
Joy (τὴν χαρὰν)
Properly, the joy which answers to the anguish.
A man (ἄνθρωπος)
See on Joh 1:30.
Have sorrow (λύπην ἔχετε)
This form of expression occurs frequently in the New Testament, to denote the possession or experience of virtues, sensations, desires, emotions, intellectual or spiritual faculties, faults, or defects. It is stronger than the verb which expresses any one of these. For instance, to have faith is stronger than to believe: to have life, than the act of living. It expresses a distinct, personal realization of the virtue or fault or sentiment in question. Hence, to have sorrow is more than to be sorrowful. In Mat 17:20, Christ does not say if ye believe, but if ye have faith; if faith, in ever so small a degree, is possessed by you as a conscious, living principle and motive. Compare have love (Joh 13:35; Jo1 4:16); have peace (Joh 16:33); have trust (Co2 3:4); have boldness (Heb 10:19; Jo1 2:28).
Ye shall ask (ἐρωτήσετε)
Or, as Rev., in margin, ask - question. To question is the primary meaning of the verb, from which it runs into the more general sense of request, beseech. So Mar 7:26; Luk 4:38; Joh 17:15, etc. Here the meaning is, ye shall ask me no question (compare Joh 16:19, where the same verb is used). Compare Mat 16:13; Mat 21:24; Joh 1:19. Ask, absolutely, Luk 22:68. Note, moreover, the selection of the word here as marking the asking on familiar terms. See on Joh 11:22. Another verb for ask occurs in the following sentence: "If ye shall ask (αἰτήστητε) anything," etc. Here the sense is, if ye shall make any request. Compare Mat 5:42; Mat 7:7, Mat 7:9, Mat 7:10, etc. Note, also, that this word for asking the Father marks the asking of an inferior from a superior, and is the word which Christ never uses of His own requests to the Father. Compare Jo1 3:22.
See on Joh 1:51; see on Joh 10:1.
Whatsoever ye shall ask - in my name - give
The best texts change ὅσα ἂν, whatsoever, to ἄντ, if (ye shall ask) anything; and place in my name after give it you. So Rev. If ye shall ask anything of the Father, He will give it you in my name. Not only is the prayer offered, but the answer is given in Christ's name.
The present imperative, implying continuous asking. Be asking. Compare Mar 6:22, αἴτησον, the aorist imperative, marking a single, definite petition.
May be full (ᾖ πεπληρωμένη)
Very literally, may be having been fulfilled. Rev., more correctly, fulfilled. Compare Joh 15:11.
See on parables, Mat 13:3. He had spoken under figures, as the vine, and the woman in travail.
Shall shew (ἀναγγελῶ)
Rev., tell. See on Joh 16:13. The best texts read ἀπαγγελῶ, the original force of which is to bring tidings from (ἀπό) something or someone.
See on Joh 7:13.
Ye shall ask - I will pray
Note again the use of the two verbs for asking. Ye shall ask (αἰτήσεσθε); I will pray (ἐρωτήσω). See on Joh 16:23.
As sons, with the love of natural affection. See on Joh 5:20. The same verb in the following clause, of the love of the disciples for Christ.
Some editors read, from the Father. Παρά, from beside.
From the Father (παρά)
The best texts read, ἐκ, out of.
See on Joh 16:7.
Speakest - speakest (λαλεῖς - λέγεις)
The first, of the form; the second, of the purport. See on Joh 16:18.
We are sure (οἴδαμεν)
Better, as Rev., we know.
By this (ἐν τούτῳ)
Literally, in this. Compare Jo1 2:3, Jo1 2:5; Jo1 3:16, Jo1 3:19, Jo1 3:24; Jo1 4:9, Jo1 4:10, Jo1 4:13, Jo1 4:17; Jo1 5:2.
See on Joh 13:33. With reference to the coming time of greater trial.
See on Joh 16:2, and see on Joh 15:12. In the divine counsel the hour cometh that ye may be scattered, and may leave, etc.
To his own (εἰς τὰ ἴδια)
To his own home. See on Joh 1:11.
Ye shall have (ἕξετε)
The best texts read, ἔξετε, ye have.
Be of good cheer (θαρσεῖτε)
Only here in John.
I have overcome (νενίκηκα)
The verb occurs only three times outside of John's writings. Only here in the Gospel, and frequently in First Epistle and Revelation. Uniformly of spiritual victory.