Vincent's Word Studies, by Marvin R. Vincent, , at sacred-texts.com
Verily, verily (ἀμὴν, ἀμὴν)
The formula never begins anything quite new, but connects what follows with what precedes. This discourse grows out of the assumption of the Pharisees to be the only authoritative guides of the people (Joh 9:24, Joh 9:29). They have already been described as blind and sinful.
Sheepfold (αὐλὴν τῶν προβάτων)
Literally, fold of the sheep. So Rev., better, because the two ideas of the flock and the fold are treated distinctly. Compare Joh 10:16.
Some other way (ἀλλαχόθεν)
Literally, from some other quarter. The thief does not, like the shepherd, come from some well-known direction, as from his dwelling or from the pasture, but from an unknown quarter and by a road of his own. This from is significant, because, in the previous discourses, Jesus has laid great stress on the source from which He proceeded, and has made the difference in character between Himself and His opposers turn upon difference of origin. See Joh 8:23, Joh 8:42, Joh 8:44. In the latter part of this chapter He brings out the same thought (Joh 10:30, Joh 10:32, Joh 10:33, Joh 10:36).
Thief - robber (κλέπτης - λῃστής)
For the distinction see on Mar 11:17. There is a climax in the order of the words; one who will gain his end by craft, and, if that will not suffice, by violence.
The shepherd (ποιμήν)
Better, a shepherd. It is the character rather than the person that is contemplated.
From θύρα, door, and ὤρα, care. An under-shepherd, to whose charge the sheep are committed after they have been folded for the night, and who opens the door on the arrival of the shepherd in the morning.
But the best texts read φωνεῖ, expressing personal address.
Putteth forth (ἐκβάλῃ)
Rev., more strictly, hath put forth. Instead of leadeth out, in Joh 10:3. It implies a constraint; as if some of the sheep were unwilling to leave the fold. Meyer says that putteth forth pictures the manner of the leading out. He lays hold on the sheep and brings them out to the door.
His own sheep (τὰ ἴδια πρόβατα)
The best texts read πάντα, all, for πρόβατα, sheep: all his own. So Rev.
As the Eastern shepherd always does. Having pushed them forth, he now leads them.
"It is necessary that they should be taught to follow, and not stray away into the unfenced fields of wheat which lie so temptingly on either side. The shepherd calls from time to time to remind them of his presence. They know his voice and follow on; but if a stranger call, they stop, lift up their heads in alarm, and if the call is repeated, they turn and flee from him; for they know not the voice of strangers. This is not the fanciful costume of a parable; it is simple fact. I have made the experiment often" (Thomson).
The word occurs but once outside of John's writings (Pe2 2:22). The usual word for parable is παραβολή, which is once rendered proverb in the A.V. (Luk 4:23, changed to parable by Rev.), and which occurs nowhere in John. For the distinction see on Mat 13:3.
The door of the sheep
Meaning the door for the sheep; not the door of the fold. "The thought is connected with the life, and not simply with the organization."
The thief (ὁ κλέπτης)
Christ puts Himself in contrast with the meaner criminal.
I am come (ἦλθον)
More correctly, I came. I am come would be the perfect tense.
More abundantly (περισσὸν)
Literally, may have abundance.
The good shepherd (ὁ ποιμὴν ὁ καλὸς)
Literally, the shepherd the good (shepherd). Καλὸς, though not of frequent occurrence in John, is more common than ἀγαθός, good, which occurs but four times and three times out of the four in the neuter gender, a good thing, or that which is good. Καλὸς in John is applied to wine (Joh 2:10), three times to the shepherd in this chapter, and twice to works (Joh 10:32, Joh 10:33). In classical usage, originally as descriptive of outward form, beautiful; of usefulness, as a fair haven, a fair wind. Auspicious, as sacrifices. Morally beautiful, noble; hence virtue is called τὸ καλὸν. The New Testament usage is similar. Outwardly fair, as the stones of the temple (Luk 21:5): well adapted to its purpose, as salt (Mar 9:50): competent for an office, as deacons (Ti1 4:6); a steward (Pe1 4:10); a soldier (Ti2 2:3): expedient, wholesome (Mar 9:43, Mar 9:45, Mar 9:47): morally good, noble, as works (Mat 5:16); conscience (Heb 13:18). The phrase it is good, i.e., a good or proper thing (Rom 14:21). In the Septuagint καλὸς is the most usual word for good as opposed to evil (Gen 2:17; Gen 24:50; Isa 5:20). In Luk 8:15, καλὸς and ἀγαθός are found together as epithets of the heart; honest (or virtuous, noble) and good. The epithet καλὸς, applied here to the shepherd, points to the essential goodness as nobly realized, and appealing to admiring respect and affection. As Canon Westcott observes, "in the fulfillment of His work, the Good Shepherd claims the admiration of all that is generous in man."
Giveth his life (τὴν ψυχὴν αὐτοῦ τίθησιν)
The phrase is peculiar to John, occurring in the Gospel and First Epistle. It is explained in two ways: either (1) as laying down as a pledge, paying as a price, according to the classical usage of the word τίθημι. So Demosthenes, to pay interest or the alien tax. Or (2) according to Joh 13:4, as laying aside his life like a garment. The latter seems preferable. Τίθημι, in the sense of to pay down a price, does not occur in the New Testament, unless this phrase, to lay down the life, be so explained. In Joh 13:4, layeth aside His garments (τίδησι τὰ ἱμάτια) is followed, in Joh 13:12, by had taken His garments (ἔλαβε τὰ ἱμάτια). So, in this chapter, giveth (τίδησιν) His life (Joh 10:11), and I lay down (τίδημι) my life (Joh 10:17, Joh 10:18), are followed by λαβεῖν "to take it again." The phrases τὴν ψυχὴν He laid down His life, and τὰς ψυχὰς θεῖναι to lay down our lives, occur in Jo1 3:16. The verb is used in the sense of laying aside in the classics, as to lay aside war, shields, etc. Compare Mat 20:28, δοῦναι τὴν ψυχὴν, to give His life.
For the sheep (ὑπὲρ)
On behalf of.
From μισθός, hire. See on Pe2 2:13. Wyc., merchant.
Very graphic. His gaze is fixed with the fascination of terror on the approaching wolf. Compare Dante:
"But not so much, that did not give me fear
A lion's aspect which appeared to me.
. . . . .
And a she wolf, that with all hungerings
Seemed to be laden in her meagerness,
And many folk has caused to live forlorn!
She brought upon me so much heaviness,
With the affright that from her aspect came,
That I the hope relinquished of the height."
"Inferno," i., 44 54.
Westcott cites Augustine on this word: fuga animi timor est, the flight of the mind is cowardice; with which again compare Dante:
"So did my soul, that still was fleeing onward,
Turn itself back," etc.
"Inferno," i., 25.
See on Joh 4:3.
Better, as Rev., snatcheth; though catch is doubtless used by the A.V. in its earlier and stronger sense, from the low Latin caciare, to chase, corrupted from captare, to snatch or lay hold of. Compare the Italian cacciare, to hunt. The same word is used at Joh 10:28, of plucking out of Christ's hand. See on Mat 11:12.
The best texts omit. Read, as Rev., scattereth them.
The hireling fleeth
The best texts omit. Read, as Rev., supplying he fleeth.
Careth not (οὐ μέλει αὐτῷ)
Literally, the sheep are not a care to him. See on Pe1 5:7. The contrast is suggestive.
Am known of mine (γινώσκομαι ὑπὸ τῶν ἐμῶν)
The best texts read, γινώσκουσί με τὰ ἐμά, mine own know me. So Rev.
As the Father knoweth me
Connect these words with the previous sentence: mine own know me, even as the Father knoweth me, etc.
From ἄω, to blow, hence, strictly, a place open to the air; an uncovered space enclosed by a wall. So Homer, of the cave of the Cyclops:
"But when we came upon that neighboring coast,
We saw upon its verge beside the sea
A cave high-vaulted, overbrowed with shrubs
Of laurel. There much cattle lay at rest,
Both sheep and goats. Around it was a court (αὐλή),
A high enclosure of hewn stone."
"Odyssey," ix., 181-186.
Dr. Thomson says: "The low building on the hill-side which we have just passed, with arches in front, and its enclosure protected by a rubble wall and thorny hedge, is a sheepfold or marah.... The marahs are generally built in a valley, or on the sunny side of a hill, where they are sheltered from the winter winds. In ordinary weather the sheep and goats are gathered at night into the enclosed yard; but when the nights are cold and stormy the flocks are shut up in the marah. The sharp thorn-bushes on the top of the wall that surrounds the yard are a defense which the prowling wolf will rarely attempt to scale. The leopard and panther of this country, however, when pressed with hunger, will sometimes overleap this thorny hedge, and with one bound land amongst the frightened fold" ("Central Palestine and Phoenicia," p. 591). Compare Homer:
"As a lion who has leaped
Into a fold - and he who guards the flock
Has wounded but not slain him - feels his rage
Waked by the blow; - the affrighted shepherd then
Ventures not near, but hides within the stalls.
And the forsaken sheep are put to flight,
And huddling, slain in heaps, till o'er the fence
The savage bounds into the fields again."
"Iliad," v., 136-142.
Better, lead, as Rev., in margin. Compare Joh 10:3, leadeth them out. The idea is not bringing them together (as συναγάγῃ, Joh 11:52), or conducting them to one place, but assuming the guidance.
There shall be (γενήσεται)
More correctly, shall come to be. Some editors read γενήσονται, they shall become.
One fold (μία ποίμνη)
The A.V. entirely ignores the distinction between αὐλή, fold, and ποίμνη, flock. The latter word is found Mat 26:31; Luk 2:8; Co1 9:7, and always distinctly meaning a flock, as does also the diminutive ποίμνιον, little flock (Luk 12:32; Pe1 5:2, etc.). Render, as Rev., one flock, one shepherd. So Tyndale's Version of the New Testament. Compare Eze 34:23. We are not, however, to say with Trench ("A.V. of the New Testament"), that the Jew and the Gentile are the two folds which Christ will gather into a single flock. The heathen are not conceived as a fold, but as a dispersion. See Joh 7:35; Joh 11:52; and, as Meyer observes, "the thought of a divine leading of the heathen does not correspond at all to the figure of fold, of which the conception of theocratic fellowship constitutes an essential feature." So Bengel. "He says, other sheep, not another fold, for they were scattered abroad in the world." When Jesus speaks of the other sheep who are not from this fold, the emphasis is on fold, not on this. Compare Rom 11:17 sqq. Nor, moreover, does Jesus mean that the Gentiles are to be incorporated into the Jewish fold, but that the unity of the two is to consist in their common relation to Himself. "The unity of the Church does not spring out of the extension of the old kingdom, but is the spiritual antitype of that earthly figure. Nothing is said of one fold under the new dispensation" (Westcott). It will readily be seen that the incorrect rendering fostered by the carelessness or the mistake of some of the Western fathers, and by the Vulgate, which renders both words by ovile, fold, has been in the interest of Romish claims.
Taketh away (αἴρει)
Some texts read ἤρεν, took away. According to this reading the word would point back to the work of Jesus as conceived and accomplished in the eternal counsel of God, where His sacrifice of Himself was not exacted, but was His own spontaneous offering in harmony with the Father's will.
I lay it down of myself
Wyc., I put it from myself.
Rev., in margin, right. See on Joh 1:12.
See on Jam 2:8.
There was a division (σχίσμα ἐγένετο)
Rev., more correctly, there arose. The word σχίσμα, division, from σχίζω, to cleave, describes a fact which continually recurs in John's narrative. See Joh 6:52, Joh 6:60, Joh 6:66; Joh 7:12, Joh 7:25 sqq.; Joh 8:22; Joh 9:16, Joh 9:17; Joh 10:19, Joh 10:24, Joh 10:41; Joh 11:37 sqq.; Joh 12:19, Joh 12:29, Joh 12:42; Joh 16:18, Joh 16:19.
That hath a devil (δαιμονιζομένου)
Literally, of one demonized. Rev., one possessed with a devil.
Can a devil (μὴ δύναται)
Surely a demon cannot.
Feast of the dedication (ἐγκαίνια)
Only here in the New Testament. The word signifies renewal, from καινός, new, fresh. Josephus calls it φῶτα, lights. It was instituted by Judas Maccabaeus (b.c. 164), in memory of the cleansing of the temple from the pollutions of Antiochus Epiphanes. The victorious Jews, says Dean Stanley, "entered and found the scene of havoc which the Syrian occupation had left. The corridors of the priests' chambers, which encircled the temple, were torn down; the gates were in ashes, the altar was disfigured, and the whole platform was overgrown as if with a mountain jungle or forest glade. It was a heartrending spectacle. Their first impulse was to cast themselves headlong on the pavement, and blow the loud horns which accompanied all mournful as well as all joyful occasions - the tocsin as well as the chimes of the nation. Then, whilst the foreign garrison was kept at bay, the warriors first began the elaborate process of cleansing the polluted place.... For the interior of the temple everything had to be refurnished afresh - vessels, candlesticks and incense-altar, and tables and curtains. At last all was completed, and on the 25th of Chisleu (middle of December), the same day that, three years before, the profanation had occurred, the temple was rededicated.... What most lived in the recollection of the time was that the perpetual light blazed again. The golden candlestick was no longer to be had. Its place was taken by an iron chandelier, cased in wood" ("Jewish Church," pt. iii., 345, 346). According to tradition, the oil was found to have been desecrated, and only one flagon of pure oil, sealed with the High-Priest's signet, was found, sufficient to feed the candlestick for a single day. But by a miracle the flagon was replenished during eight days, until a fresh supply could be procured. The festival lasted for eight days. Lights were kindled, not only in the temple, but in every home. Pious householders lighted a lamp for every inmate of the home, and the most zealous added a light every night for every individual, so that if a house with ten inmates began with ten lights, it would end with eighty. The Jews assembled in the temple, or in the synagogues of the places where they resided, bearing branches of palm, and singing psalms of praise. No fast or mourning, on account of any calamity or bereavement, was permitted to commence during the festival.
A covered colonnade on the eastern side of the outer court of the temple. According to Josephus it was a relic of Solomon's days, which had remained intact in the destruction of the temple by Nebuchadnezzar.
Make us to doubt (τὴν ψυχὴν ἡμῶν αἴρεις)
Literally, lift up our soul. Excite us and inflame our hopes. Rev., hold us in suspense.
See on Joh 7:13.
As I said unto you
The best texts omit.
My sheep (τὰ πρόβατα τὰ ἐμὰ)
Literally, the sheep, those that are mine. A characteristic form of expression with John. Compare Joh 3:29; Joh 5:30; Joh 14:15, etc.
I give (δίδωμι)
Not, I will give. The gift is present and continuous. Compare Joh 3:36.
Shall pluck (ἁρπάσει)
See on Joh 10:12. Compare can pluck, Joh 10:29. Here Jesus speaks of the fact; there of the possibility. Rev., snatch. Wyc., ravish.
My Father, which gave them me, is greater than all (ὁ πατήρ μου ὃς δέδωκέ μοι, μείζων πάντων ἐστιν)
There is considerable confusion here about the reading. Westcott and Hort and Tischendorf read ὁ πατήρ μου (Tischendorf rejects μου) ὃ δέδωκέν μοι πάντων μεῖζόν ἐστιν. That which the Father (or my Father) hath given me is greater than all. Rev. gives this in the margin. For gave, render hath given.
The neuter, not the masculine εἶς, one person. It implies unity of essence, not merely of will or of power.
Took up - again (ἐβάστασαν - πάλιν)
Again refers to Joh 8:59. It seems as though a different verb is purposely chosen here (compare ἦραν took up, in Joh 8:59), since the interview took place in Solomon's porch, where stones would not be at hand. The verb here may mean to take up. So Ajax says:
"Send some one as a messenger to bear
The evil news to Teucros, that he first
May lift (βαστάσῃ) my corpse by this sharp sword transfixed."
Sophocles, "Ajax," 827.
Its more usual meaning in the New Testament, however, is to bear or carry. So of the cross (Joh 19:17; Luk 14:27). Here it might very properly be rendered brought, perhaps from the works which were then going on at the temple. See further on Joh 12:6.
Good works (καλὰ)
Beautiful, noble works, adapted to call forth admiration and respect. Compare Mar 14:6, and see on Joh 10:11.
For which of these works (διὰ ποῖον αὐτῶν ἔργον)
Literally, for what kind of a work of these. This qualitative force of ποῖον is not to be lost sight of, though it is impossible to render it accurately without paraphrasing. Jesus does not mean, as the A.V. and Rev. imply, "for which one of these works," but "what is the character of that particular work among all these for which you stone me?" The me, closing the sentence, is emphatic.
Is it not written (οὐκ ἐστιν γεγραμμένον)
More strictly, does it not stand written.
The word is sometimes used in the New Testament of other scriptures. See Joh 12:34; Joh 15:25; Rom 3:19; Co1 14:21.
I said, etc.
The reference is to Psa 82:6.
The Scripture (ἡ γραφή)
The passage of scripture. See on Joh 2:22; see on Joh 5:47.
Literally, loosened. Wyc., undone. The word is characteristic of John. He uses it of the destruction of the temple (Joh 2:19); the breaking of the Sabbath (Joh 5:18); the violation of the law (Joh 7:23); the destruction of Satan's works (Jo1 3:8), besides elsewhere in the physical sense.
Better, as Rev., in margin, consecrated. The fundamental idea of the word is separation and consecration to the service of Deity. See note on Act 26:10, on the kindred adjective ἅγιος, holy or consecrated.
The Son of God
There is no article. Its absence directs us to the character rather than to the person of Jesus. The judges, to whom the quotation in Joh 10:35 refers, were called gods, as being representatives of God. See Exo 21:6; Exo 22:8, where the word rendered judges is elohim, gods. In Exo 22:28, gods appears in the A.V. Jesus' course of reasoning is, if these judges could be called gods, how do I blaspheme in calling myself Son of God, since the Father has consecrated me and sent me on a special mission to the world?
Believe me (πιστεύετέ μοι)
Notice believe, with the simple dative; believe me, not on me. It is a question of faith in His testimony, not in His person. See on Joh 1:12.
The best texts read ἐν τῷ πατρί, in the Father.
Pointing back to Joh 7:30, Joh 7:32, Joh 7:44, where the word πιάσαι, to seize, is found.
Escaped out of (ἐξῆλθεν ἐκ)
Rev., literally, went forth out of. The phrase occurs only here.
Beyond Jordan (πέραν τοῦ Ιορδάνου)
Into the region called Peroea, from πέραν, beyond. It was on the east side of the river, and was the ancient possession of Gad and Reuben. It corresponds, in an enlarged sense, to the region round about Jordan (Mat 3:5; Luk 3:3). Compare Mat 19:1; Mar 10:1.