Vincent's Word Studies, by Marvin R. Vincent, , at sacred-texts.com
Without the article, indicating that it is treated in its abstract conception, and not merely as Christian faith. It is important that the preliminary definition should be clearly understood, since the following examples illustrate it. The key is furnished by Heb 11:27, as seeing him who is invisible. Faith apprehends as a real fact what is not revealed to the senses. It rests on that fact, acts upon it, and is upheld by it in the face of all that seems to contradict it. Faith is a real seeing. See Introduction, p. 363.
See on Heb 1:3 and see on Heb 3:14. On the whole, the Rev. assurance gives the true meaning. The definition has a scholastic and philosophic quality, as might be expected from a pupil of the Alexandrian schools. The meaning substance, real being, given by A.V., Vulg., and many earlier interpreters, suggests the true sense, but is philosophically inaccurate. Substance, as used by these translators, is substantial nature; the real nature of a thing which underlies and supports its outward form or properties. In this sense it is very appropriate in Heb 1:3, in describing the nature of the Son as the image or impress of God's essential being: but in this sense it is improperly applied to faith, which is an act of the moral intelligence directed at an object; or a condition which sustains a certain relation to the object. It cannot be said that faith is substantial being. It apprehends reality: it is that to which the unseen objects of hope become real and substantial. Assurance gives the true idea. It is the firm grasp of faith on unseen fact.
N.T.o. Quite often in lxx for יָכַֽח, to reprove, rebuke, punish, blame. See Pro 1:23; Wisd. 2:14; Sir. 21:12. See especially on the kindred verb ἐλέγχειν, Joh 3:20. Rend. conviction. Observe that ὑπόστασις and ἔλεγχος are not two distinct and independent conceptions, in which case καὶ would have been added; but they stand in apposition. Ἔλεγχος is really included in ὑπόστασις, but adds to the simple idea of assurance a suggestion of influences operating to produce conviction which carry the force of demonstration. The word often signifies a process of proof or demonstration. So von Soden: "a being convinced. Therefore not a rash, feebly-grounded hypothesis, a dream of hope, the child of a wish."
Of things (πραγμάτων)
Πρᾶγμα is, strictly, a thing done; an accomplished fact. It introduces a wider conception than ἐλπιζομένων things hoped for; embracing not only future realities, but all that does not fall under the cognizance of the senses, whether past, present, or future.
For by it (ἐν ταύτῃ γὰρ)
Lit. for in this. Rend. therein: in the sphere and exercise of faith: as believers. Comp. Ti1 5:10. For introduces a proof of the preceding statement concerning the nature of faith. Faith has power to see and realize the unseen, for the experience of the fathers proves it.
The elders obtained a good report (ἐμαρτυρηθήσαν οἱ πρεσβύτεροι)
The elders for the more common the fathers: the saints of the O.T. dispensation, many of whose names are recorded in this chapter. Εμαρτυρηθήσαν, lit. were borne witness to. God bore witness to them in the victory of their faith over all obstacles, and their characters and deeds as men of faith were recorded in Scripture. For this use of ματυρεῖν in the passive, see Act 6:3; Act 10:22; Act 16:12; Rom 3:21; Heb 7:8, Heb 7:17. Notice that the statement in this verse does not begin the list of examples, which commences with Heb 11:4, but is closely attached to the definition in Heb 11:1 as a comprehensive justification of it.
Neither does this verse belong to the list of historical instances from Genesis, in which men exercised faith. It is merely the first instance presented in O.T. history of an opportunity for the exercise of faith as the assurance and conviction of things not seen. Like Heb 11:2, it is closely connected with the definition. It contains the exposition of the nature of faith, by showing that in its earliest and most general expression - belief in the creation of the visible universe by God - it is a conviction of something not apprehensible by sense.
We understand (νοοῦμεν)
Νοεῖν signifies to perceive with the νοῦς or reflective intelligence. In Class. of seeing with the eyes, sometimes with ὀφθαλμοῖς expressed; but as early as Homer it is distinguished from the mere physical act of vision, as perception of the mind consequent upon seeing. Thus, τὸν δὲ ἰδὼν ἐνόησε and seeing him he perceived (Il. xi. 599): οὐκ ἴδον οὐδ' ἐνόησα I neither saw nor perceived (Od. xiii. 318). In N.T. never of the mere physical act. Here is meant the inward perception and apprehension of the visible creation as the work of God, which follows the sight of the phenomena of nature.
The worlds (τοὺς αἰῶνας)
Lit. the ages. The world or worlds as the product of successive aeons. See on Heb 1:2.
Were framed (κατηρτίσθαι)
Put together; adjusted; the parts fitted to each other. See on Gal 6:1; see on Mat 21:16; see on Luk 6:40. Of the preparing and fixing in heaven of the sun and moon, lxx, Psalm 73:16; 88:37; of building a wall, 2 Esdr. 4:12, 13, 16. See also Psa 39:6. Rend. have been framed. The A.V. gives the impression of one giving his assent to an account of creation; but the perfect tense exhibits the faith of one who is actually contemplating creation itself.
By the word of God (ῥήματι)
Comp. Genesis 1; Psa 33:6; Psa 118:5.
So that things which are seen were not made of things which do appear (εἰς τὸ μὴ ἐκ φαινομένων τὸ βλεπόμενον γεγονέναι)
For things which are seen, rend. that which is seen. For were not made rend. hath not been made. Ἐις τὸ followed by the infinitive signifies result, not purpose. We perceive that the worlds have been framed by the word of God, so that (this being the case) that which is visible has not arisen out of that which is seen. Μὴ not negatives the remainder of the clause taken as a whole. In other words, the proposition denied is, that which is seen arose out of visible things. By many early interpreters μὴ was transposed, and construed with φαινομένων alone, signifying "that which is seen has arisen from things which do not appear." These things were explained as chaos, the invisible creative powers of God, etc.
Abel offered unto God (Ἄβελ προσήνεγκεν τῷ θεῷ)
For the phrase see Heb 9:14.
A more excellent sacrifice (πλείονα θυσίαν)
Greater in value in God's eyes. For πλείων in this sense, see Heb 3:3; Mat 6:25; Luk 11:31; Luk 12:23. In Paul never in this sense. Others explain a more abundant sacrifice, referring to the material character of the offerings. See Gen 4:4. But the difference between the offerings of Abel and Cain, considered in themselves, is largely a matter of speculation, and, as Lnemann justly remarks, such an interpretation accentuates unduly a purely external feature.
By which he obtained witness (δι ἧς ἐμαρτυρήθη)
Lit. was witnessed to, as Heb 11:2. The pronoun which may refer either to the sacrifice or to faith. Better the latter, as is apparent from Heb 11:2, and probably from Heb 11:7, although the relation there is somewhat different.
Abel is called righteous by Christ himself. Mat 23:35. Comp. Jo1 3:12. See on Rom 1:17.
God testifying of his gifts (μαρτυροῦντος ἐπὶ τοῖς δώροις αὐτοῦ τοῦ θεοῦ)
Defining more specifically the general was witnessed to. God bore witness by his acceptance of the gifts. Ἐπὶ marks the fact on which the witness was based.
Yet speaketh (ἔτι λαλεῖ)
Comp. Gen 4:10. Still, although ages have passed since his death. Comp. Heb 12:24. Not that his voice still cries to God (so Bleek and others), but that by his faith he still speaks to us in the O.T. Scriptures, though dead. Const. ἔτι yet with λαλεῖ speaketh; not with being dead, in the logical sense, "even being dead," as Rom 3:7.
Gen 5:21-24. Comp. Sir. 44:16; 49:14; Wisd. 4:10.
Was translated (μετετέθη)
The verb used of Enoch's translation, lxx, Gen 5:24. In Act 7:16 of the transporting of the remains of Jacob and his sons to Sychem. In Gal 1:6, of the sudden change in the religious attitude of the Galatians. In Heb 7:12, of the change in the priesthood.
That he should not see death (τοῦ μὴ ἰδεῖν θάνατον)
This may signify the purpose of his translation, but probably refers to the result. He was translated so that he did not see death. Comp. Mat 21:32; Act 7:19; Rom 7:3.
Was not found because God had translated him (οὐχ ηὑρίσκετο διότι μετέθηκεν αὐτὸν ὁ θεός)
Cited from lxx, Gen 5:24. For had translated rend. translated.
He had this testimony (μεμαρτύρηται)
Rev properly preserves the force of the perfect tense, "he hath had witness born to him." The testimony still stands on record.
That he pleased God
Rend. hath pleased. Comp. lxx, Gen 5:22, Gen 5:24. Faith was exhibited by Enoch in walking with God (comp. A.V. Gen 5:22, "walked with God," and lxx, εὐαρέστησε pleased God). Faith creates close personal relation.
To please (εὐαρεστῆσαι)
The aorist gives the sense of at all, stating the verbal idea without time, as a universal proposition. Comp. Rom 8:8.
See on Heb 4:16. Must (δεῖ). An essential obligation. In the nature of the case. That he is (ὅτι ἔστιν). Faith in God involves belief in his existence although he is unseen.
Is a rewarder (μισθαποδότης)
Note the difference of the verb: not simply exists, but comes to pass as; proves to be, habitually, so that he who approaches God has, through faith, the assurance that his seeking God will result in good to himself. Μισθαποδότης rewarder, N.T.o. Comp. μισθαποδοσία recompense of reward, Heb 2:2 (note); Heb 10:35; Heb 11:26.
Of them that diligently seek him (τοῖς ἐκζητοῦσιν αὐτὸν)
Lit. unto them that seek him out. Comp. Act 15:17; Heb 12:17; Pe1 1:10. The verb is used of seeking God, Rom 3:11. God's beneficent will and attitude toward the seeker are not always apparent at the first approach. In such cases there is occasion for faith, in the face of delay, that diligent seeking will find its reward. One is reminded of Jesus' lessons on importunity in seeking God, Luk 11:5-10; Luk 18:1-8.
He hides himself so wondrously
As though there were no God;
He is least seen when all the powers
Of ill are most abroad.
Or he deserts us at the hour
The fight is almost lost,
And seems to leave us to ourselves
Just when we need him most.
It is not so, but so it looks;
And we lose courage then;
And doubts will come if God hath kept
His promises to men."
Being warned of God (χρηματισθεὶς)
Of God is not in the text. See on Mat 2:12; see on Luk 2:26; see on Act 11:26; and comp. Heb 8:5.
Of things not seen as yet (περὶ τῶν μηδέπω βλεπομένων)
Const. with εὐλαβηθεὶς, and rend. "by faith Noah, being warned, having reverent care concerning things not seen as yet, prepared an ark," etc. Thus χρηματισθεὶς warned is taken absolutely. The things not seen were the well-known contents of the revelation to Noah, Gen 6:13 ff., as apprehended by Noah's faith.
Moved with fear (εὐλαβηθεὶς)
N.T.o. Often in Class. and lxx. See on εὐλάβεια godly fear, Heb 5:7. The A.V. gives the impression that Noah acted under the influence of fright. Rev. improves on this a little by rendering godly fear. The true idea is pious care, a reverent circumspection with regard to things enjoined by God, and as yet unseen, yet confidently expected on the strength of God's word.
Built and equipped. See on Heb 3:3.
An ark (κιβωτὸν)
Originally, a wooden chest Also of the ark of the covenant in the temple and tabernacle, as Heb 9:4; Rev 11:19. Of Noah's ark, Mat 24:38; Luk 17:27; Pe1 3:20 Λάρσαξ a chest is found in Class. in the same sense. Every classical scholar will recall the charming fragment of Simonides on Danae and her infant son Perseus exposed in an ark:
Ὁτε λάρνακι ἐν δαισαλέᾳ ἄνεσμος
βρέμε πνέων κ. τ. λ.
Also of the ark of Deucalion, the mythic Noah.
By the which (δι' ἧς)
By faith: although some refer it to the ark.
He condemned the world (κατέκρινεν τὸν κόσμον)
His faith was exhibited in building the ark on the mere strength of God's declaration, while as yet there were no signs of the flood. By his faith thus manifested he announced the condemnation of the world to destruction. World is to be taken as in Pe2 2:5. It is not used in Hebrews in the ethical sense so common in John and Paul - the world as alien from God. The meaning of the statement is not that Noah condemned the conduct of his contemporaries by the contrast presented by his own faith, after the analogy of Mat 12:41; Rom 2:27.
And became heir (καὶ - ἐγένετο κληρονόμος)
This is not an independent clause, but is dependent on δι' ἧς by which. It is connected by καὶ with the preceding clause, and the two clauses are parallel, describing the lot of Noah and his family. Became heir is practically = became partaker of. The literal sense of heir must not be pressed. Certainly not "inherited the righteousness of Abel and Enoch." But righteousness came to Noah in virtue of his intimate fellowship with God. Of him as of Enoch, it is said that "he walked with God," Gen 6:9. Because of this fellowship he was a son of God and an heir of righteousness.
Of the righteousness which is by faith (τῆς κατὰ πίστις δικαιοσύνης)
In the O.T. Noah is the first to receive the title of δίκαιος righteous, Gen 6:9; comp. Eze 14:14, Eze 14:20; Sir. 44:17. Κατὰ πίστιν, lit. according to faith, comp Mat 9:29; Tit 1:1, Tit 1:4. Paul has δικαιοσύνη and δίκαιος from or out of faith (ἐκ πίστεως), by faith (διὰ πίστεως), founded on faith (ἐπὶ τῇ πίστει), and of faith (πίστεως), none of which are found either in Hebrews or in the Pastorals. Κατὰ πίστιν signifies according to faith as a standard; but the conception at bottom is not essentially different from Paul's, unless there be imported into his conception the scholastic fiction of imputed righteousness. Paul, in Romans 4 is at pains to show that the Christian conception of righteousness by faith has its parallel in Abraham, and that the doctrine of justification by faith is no new thing. Faith is the ground and the germ of righteousness. Our writer here lays down the absolute and universal standard of righteousness for the men of both dispensations - according to faith. Hence, like Paul, he cites the words of Hab 2:4. See Heb 10:38.
Paul exhibits faith as the element of personal righteousness in Abraham. In these verses (Heb 11:8-22) faith, according to the opening definition in this chapter, is that assurance and conviction of unseen things which caused Abraham and the patriarchs to rely confidently upon the future fulfillment of the divine promises.
When he was called to go out - obeyed (καλούμενος ἐξελθεῖν ὑπήκουσεν)
A.V. is wrong. Ἐξελθεῖν to go out should be construed with ὑπήκουσεν obeyed, and καλούμενος being called is to be taken absolutely. Καλούμενος, the present participle, indicates Abraham's immediate obedience to the call: while he was yet being called. Rend. "when he was called obeyed to go out." The infinitive explains the more general obeyed, by specifying that in which his obedience was shown. For the construction, see Act 15:10; Th1 1:9; Heb 5:5. For the narrative, see Gen 12:1-6, and comp. Act 7:2-5.
Whither he went (ποῦ ἔρχεται)
Note the picturesque continued present tense, "whither he is going," as of Abraham on his journey.
He sojourned in (παρῴκησεν εἰς)
The verb lit. to dwell beside or among. Πάροικος, a foreigner dwelling in a state without rights of citizenship. In Class. only in the sense of neighbor. See on Luk 24:18. The verb of rest with the preposition of motion (only here) signifies that he went into the land and dwelt there. Usually with ἐν in, but sometimes with the simple accusative, as Luk 24:18; Gen 17:8; Exo 6:4.
Land of promise (γῆν τῆς ἐπαγγελίας)
Note the article, omitted in A.V., the promise: the land which was designated in the promise of God. See Gen 12:7; Gen 13:15. The phrase N.T.o. There is no corresponding phrase in O.T.
Another (ἄλλη) land than his own. So lxx, Gen 15:13. Comp. Act 7:6.
In tabernacles (ἐν σκηναῖς)
Or tents, as a migratory people, without a permanent home.
The heirs with him (τῶν συνκληρονόμων)
Joint-heirs or fellow-heirs. olxx, oClass. See Rom 8:17; Eph 3:6; Pe1 3:7. The three, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, are mentioned because they cover the entire period of the sojourn in Canaan. Faith inspired these to endure patiently their unsettled life, since it assured them of a permanent home in the future.
For he looked for a city which hath foundations (ἐξεδέχετο γὰρ τὴν τοὺς θεμελίους ἔξουσαν πόλιν)
The sense is impaired in A.V. by the omission of the articles, the city, the foundations. Passing over the immediate subject of God's promise to Abraham - his inheritance of the land in which he sojourns - the writer fastens the patriarch's faith upon the heavenly fulfillment of the promise - the perfected community of God, which, he assumes, was contained in the original promise. By the city he means the heavenly Jerusalem, and his statement is that Abraham's faith looked forward to that. The idea of the new or heavenly Jerusalem was familiar to the Jews. See Heb 12:22, Heb 13:14; Gal 4:26; Rev 3:12; Rev 21:2. The Rabbins regarded it as an actual city. For the foundations comp. Rev 21:14. In ascribing to the patriarchs an assured faith in heaven as the end and reward of their wanderings, the writer oversteps the limits of history; but evidently imports into the patriarchal faith the contents of a later and more developed faith - that of himself and his readers.
Builder and maker (τεχνίτης καὶ δημιουργὸς)
Τεχνίτης artificer, architect. Comp. Act 19:24 (note), Act 19:28; Rev 18:22, and lxx, Ch1 29:5; Sol 7:1; Wisd. 8:6; 14:2; Sir. 9:17 Δημιουργὸς N.T.o, originally a workman for the public (δῆμος); generally, framer, builder. It is used by Xenophon and Plato of the maker of the world (Xen. Mem. i. 4, 9; Plato, Tim. 40 C; Repub. 530 A). It was appropriated by the Neo Platonists as the designation of God. To the Gnostics, the Demiurge was a limited, secondary God, who created the world; since there was no possibility of direct contact between the supreme, incommunicable God and the visible world.
Faith prevailing against natural impossibilities. See Rom 4:19-22. Both Abraham and Sarah doubted at first (Gen 17:17; Gen 18:12); but both became persuaded of the truthfulness of the promise.
She who at first doubted.
To conceive seed (εἰς καταβολὴν σπέρματος)
In every other instance in N.T. καταβολή means foundation, and appears in the phrase καταβολὴ κόσμου foundation of the world. Originally it means throwing down; hence, the depositing of the male seed in the womb. The sentence may be explained either, "received strength as regarded the deposition of seed," to fructify it; or, "received strength for the foundation of a posterity," σπέρμα being rendered in accordance with Heb 2:16; Heb 11:18, and καταβολή in the sense of foundation, as everywhere else in N.T.
And was delivered of a child when she was past age (καὶ παρὰ καιρὸν ἡλικίας)
Was delivered of a child not in the text. Καὶ and that. Rend. "received strength," etc., "and that when she was past age." Παρὰ καιρὸν ἡλικίας, lit. past the season of age. For ἡλικία see on stature, Luk 12:25.
As good as dead (νενεκρωμένου)
Comp. Rom 4:19. As good as is an addition of A.V. The Greek reads and that a dead man. Comp. νέκρωσιν deadness applied to Sarah, Rom 4:19.
Stars - sand
See Gen 22:17; Gen 32:12.
By the seashore (παρὰ τὸ χεῖλος τῆς θαλάσσης)
Lit. by the lip of the sea. The phrase N.T.o. Very often in lxx, as Gen 22:17; Exo 14:30; lip of a river, Gen 41:17; Exo 7:15; of a brook, Deu 2:36; Deu 3:12; of Jordan, Kg2 2:13. So in Class. The vigor thus supernaturally imparted to Abraham does not appear to have exhausted itself in the generation of Isaac; since, according to Gen 25:2, Abraham became by Keturah the father of six sons after the death of Sarah.
In faith (κατὰ πίστιν)
See on Heb 11:7.
Not having received (μὴ κομισάμενοι)
See on Heb 10:36. They died according to faith, inasmuch as they did not receive. They died under the regimen of faith, and not of sight. For the phrase κομίζειν τὰς ἐπαγγελίας to receive the promises, comp. Heb 10:36; Heb 11:39.
Having seen them afar off (πόρρωθεν αύτὰς ἰδόντες)
By faith; from afar.
Were persuaded of them and embraced them (ἀσπασάμενοι)
The A.V. completely destroys the beauty of this verse. It reads were persuaded, following T.R. πεισθέντες, and translates ἀσπασάμενοι embraced, which is a sort of inferential rendering of the original sense to salute or greet. Rend. "having seen them from afar and greeted them": as seamen wave their greeting to a country seen far off on the horizon, on which they cannot land. Lnemann appropriately quotes Virgil, Aen. iii. 522:
"Cum proculi obscuros collis humilemque videmus
Italiam. Italiam primus conclamat Achates,
Italiam laeto socii clamore salutant."
Confessed that they were strangers and pilgrims (ὁμολογήσαντες ὅτι ξένοι καὶ παρεπίδημοι)
They admitted and accepted the fact with the resignation of faith, and with the assurance of future rest. Comp. Gen 23:4; Gen 24:37; Gen 28:4; Gen 47:9; Psa 39:12; Psa 119:19, Psa 119:54. For παρεπίδημοι sojourners, see on Pe1 1:1. In the anonymous Epistle to Diognetus, an apologetic letter, probably of the second century, and one of the gems of early Christian literature, occur the following words concerning Christians: "They inhabit their own country, but as sojourners: they take part in all things as citizens, and endure all things as aliens: every foreign country is theirs, and every country is foreign."
Declare plainly (ἐμφαμίζουσιν)
oP. See on Joh 14:21. Occasionally in lxx. Rend. "make it manifest."
They seek a country (πατρίδα ἐπιζητοῦσιν)
The verb is found in lxx, chiefly in the sense of seeking after God or another deity. See Kg2 1:3, Kg2 1:6; Kg2 3:11; Kg2 8:8; Kg2 22:18; Ch2 18:6. Comp. ἐπιζητουμένη πόλις a city sought after (Zion), Isa 62:12. Πατρίς is a native country; a fatherland. Only here and in Gospels and Acts. Quite often in lxx.
If they had been mindful (εἰ ἐμνημόνευον)
In N.T. habitually remember. So invariably in lxx. The meaning here is, that if, in their declaration (Heb 11:14) that they were seeking a country, they had called to mind the country from which they came out, they could have returned thither, so that it is evident that they did not mean that country.
To have returned (ἀνακάμψαι)
Rend. "to return." Lit. bend their way back again (ἀνα).
Now they desire (νΰν ὀρέγονται)
Νῦν now is logical: as the case now stands. For ὀρέγονται desire, see on Ti1 3:1.
Is not ashamed (οὐκ ἐπαισχύνεται)
Because they have commended themselves to God by their faith, so that he acknowledges them as his own. Comp. Heb 2:11; Mar 8:28, Mar 8:38; Rom 1:16; Ti2 1:8, Ti2 1:16.
To be called their God (Θεὸς ἐπικαλεῖσθαι αὐτῶν)
Lit. to be surnamed. Comp. Act 4:36; Act 10:5, Act 10:18, Act 10:32. God was called the God of Abraham, of Isaac, and of Jacob. See Exo 3:6.
For he hath prepared for them a city (ἡτοίμασιν γὰρ αὐτοῖς πόλιν)
Comp. Mat 25:34; Joh 14:2; Rev 21:2. City is significant, as showing that the fulfillment of God's promise lies in introducing them into the perfection of social life. Comp. Rev 3:12; Rev 21:2, Rev 21:10; Rev 22:19.
When he was tried offered up (προσενήνοχεν πειραζόμενος)
The full sense of the statement is missed in A.V. The meaning is that while the trial is yet in progress, Abraham hath already offered up his son, before the trial has come to an issue, by the act of his obedient will, through faith in God. Comp. Jam 2:21.
He that had received (ὁ ἀναδεξάμενος)
The verb only here and Act 28:7. It means to accept; to welcome and entertain. So Rev. gladly received.
See on Pe1 5:12; see on Rom 4:5; see on Rom 8:18.
From whence (ὅθεν)
Rend. wherefore: because of his faith in God's power and truthfulness. Ὃθεν, though occasionally in a local sense in N.T., as Mat 12:44; Luk 11:24; Act 14:26, is much more common in the logical or causal sense, wherefore, on which account. So in every other instance in Hebrews. In the local sense it would mean from the dead.
Also he received him in a figure (αὐτὸν καὶ ἐν παρασολῇ ἐκομίσατο)
Καὶ marks the receiving as answering to the faith. As Abraham believed in God's power to restore Isaac, so, because of his faith, he also received him. For ἐκομίσατο received see on Heb 10:36. Ἐν παραβολῆ in a parable. Since the sacrifice did not take place as a literal slaughter, there could not be a literal restoration from death. There was a real offering in Abraham's will, but not a real death of Isaac. Isaac's death took place symbolically, in the sacrifice of the ram: correspondingly, the restoration was only a symbolic restoration from the dead. Some expositors, among whom is Westcott, explain thus: Abraham accounted that God was able to raise Isaac from the dead, from which he received him at birth, in that Isaac sprung from one dead (νενεκρωμένου, Heb 11:12). This is extremely labored and artificial.
See on Joh 12:13.
Concerning things to come (καὶ περὶ μελλόντων)
A.V. Omits καὶ which gives an emphasis to the following words. Isaac pronounced a blessing, and that concerning things to come; things beyond the lifetime of Jacob and Esau. See Gen 27:29, Gen 27:39. The blessing was an act of faith. Isaac's confidence in the power of his blessing to convey the good which it promised was "the assurance of things hoped for, the conviction of things not seen," founded on the promise of Gen 17:5.
When he died (ἀποθνήσκων)
Rend. "when dying." It is quite superfluous to explain this as emphasizing the strength in contrast with the weakness of approaching death; or that, in the birth of Joseph's two sons before Jacob's death, Jacob discerned a monition to adopt them into the direct line of his own sons. The meaning is simply that these events took place in Jacob's last hours.
Blessed each (ἕκαστον εὐλόγησεν)
See Gen 48:17-20. Each son received a separate and distinct blessing, although Joseph had expected only one common blessing for both. Jacob's discernment of faith appeared in this, as in the precedence assigned to the younger son.
And worshipped leaning on the top of his staff (καὶ προσεκύνησεν ἐπὶ τὸ ἄκρον τῆς ῥάβδου αὐτοῦ)
From the lxx of Gen 47:31. It seems to have been loosely included by our writer among the incidents of Jacob's last hours (ἀποθνήσκων), although it belongs to a different part of the narrative. The promise given by Joseph to remove his father's remains to the family sepulchre may have been regarded as preparatory to the blessing, or introduced in order to emphasize the devotional character of the entire proceeding. The words upon the head of his staff are from the lxx; the Hebrew being "Jacob bowed himself upon the head of the bed." Comp. Kg1 1:47. According to its vowel-points the same Hebrew word signifies either staff or bed. The lxx has chosen the former, and renders by ῥάβδος staff. According to the Hebrew, the meaning is that Jacob, having been sitting during the conversation, lay down when it was finished, probably overcome by weakness, and breathing a prayer as he fell back on his pillow.
When he died (τελευτῶν)
Comp. Gen 1:26, lxx. The verb means to finish or close, with life understood. Always in this sense in N.T. See Mat 2:19; Mat 9:18; Luk 7:2, etc. Never used by Paul. Rend. "when near his end."
Made mention of (περὶ - ἐμνημόνευσεν)
See on Heb 11:15. A.V. has remembered in marg. Remembered is appropriate here. Joseph on his death-bed remembered the promise of God to give the land of Canaan to the seed of Abraham (Gen 12:7; Gen 13:15; Gen 15:7), and also the prediction to Abraham that his descendants should pass four hundred years in bondage in a strange land, and should afterward be brought out thence, Gen 15:13, Gen 15:14.
The departing of the children of Israel (τῆς ἐξόδου τῶν υἱῶν Ισραὴλ)
Ἔξοδος only here, Luk 9:31 (note) and Pe2 1:15 (note). Ὁι υἱοὶ Ἰσραὴλ is one of several phrases in N.T. denoting the chosen people. There are also house (οἶκος) and people (λαὸς) of Israel, and Israel of God, and Israel according to the flesh.
And gave commandment (καὶ ἐνετείλατο)
Καὶ and so; in consequence of his remembering the prophecy of the exodus. The verb indicates a specific injunction (ἐντολή). See on Ti1 6:14.
Of his parents (ὑπὸ τῶν πατέρων αὐτοῦ)
Lit. by his fathers. Comp. Exo 2:2. Πατέρες fathers, according to a late Greek usage, is employed like γονεῖς parents. Similarly the Lat. patres and soceri, including both parents, or father and mother in law.
Only here and Act 7:20, on which see note. Rend. "comely."
N.T.o. Rend. "mandate."
When he was come to years (μέγας γενόμενος)
Lit. having become great. Comp. lxx, Exo 2:11. Often in the phrase μικροὶ καὶ μεγάλοι small and great; young and old. See Act 26:22; Heb 8:11; Rev 11:8; Rev 13:16, etc.
To suffer affliction with (συνκακουχεῖσθαι)
N.T.o , olxx, oClass. The verb κακουχεῖν to treat ill, Heb 11:37; Heb 13:3; lxx, Kg1 2:26; Kg1 11:39. Rend. "to be evil entreated."
Than to enjoy the pleasures of sin for a season (ἣ πρόσκαιρον ἔχειν ἁμαρτίας ἀπόλαυσιν)
Lit. than to have temporary enjoyment of sin. The emphasis is first on temporary and then on sin. For ἀπόλαυσις enjoyment, see on Ti1 6:17. Πρόσκαιρος for a season, temporary, rare in N.T. olxx. Once in Paul, see Co2 4:18.
Esteeming the reproach of Christ (ἡγησάμενος τὸν ὀνειδισμὸν τοῦ Χριστοῦ)
The participle gives the reason for his choice of affliction instead of sin: since he esteemed. "The reproach of Christ" is the reproach peculiar to Christ; such as he endured. The writer uses it as a current form of expression, coloring the story of Moses with a Christian tinge. Comp. Rom 15:3; Heb 13:13; Co2 1:5; Col 1:24; Phi 3:14; Pe1 4:14. The phrase is applied to Moses as enduring at the hands of the Egyptians and of the rebellious Israelites the reproach which any faithful servant of God will endure, and which was endured in a notable way by Christ.
He had respect unto (ἀπέβλεπεν εἰς)
N.T.o. Lit. he looked away (from the treasures of Egypt, etc.) unto the recompense.
He forsook Egypt (κατέλιπεν Ἄιγυπτον)
After he had killed the Egyptian, Exo 2:15. Not in the general exodus. The historical order of events is preserved: the flight to Midian, the Passover, the Exodus, the passage of the Red Sea.
The wrath (τὸν θυμὸν)
Only here in Hebrews. See on Joh 3:36.
He endured (ἐκαρτέρησεν)
N.T.o. Occasionally in lxx. Often in Class. He was stanch and steadfast.
As seeing him who is invisible (τὸν ἀόρατον ὡς ὁρῶν)
Since he saw, etc. The emphasis is on invisible, pointing back to the introductory definition of faith. The word is used of God, Col 1:15; Ti1 1:17.
Kept the passover (πεποίηκεν τὸ πάσχα)
Rend. "hath instituted the passover." The perfect tense indicates the continued significance of the service down to the time of writing. The phrase ποιεῖν τὸ πάσχα on N.T. only here and Mat 26:18. The usual N.T. phrase is φαγεῖν τὸ πάσχα to eat the Passover. See Mat 26:17; Mar 14:12; Luk 22:11. Ποιεῖν τὸ πάσχα unquestionably means to keep or celebrate the Passover, as Mat 26:18; Exo 12:48; Num 9:2, Num 9:4, Num 9:6, Num 9:10, Num 9:13; Deu 16:1 : but the verb is elastic. The corresponding Hebrew verb עָשָֽׂה, among other meanings, signifies to create (Gen 1:7; Gen 2:2); to establish (Ecc 2:5, Ecc 2:6, Ecc 2:8); to constitute (Kg1 12:31, Kg1 12:32); to make ready or prepare (Jdg 13:15; to prepare as a sacrifice (Psa 66:15). In all these instances it is rendered in lxx by ποιεῖν. In N.T. we find ποιεῖν ἄριστον or δεῖπνον to prepare a breakfast or dinner. Accordingly ποιεῖν may properly be used here of the instituting of the Passover. Moreover the two following clauses clearly indicate that the writer is referring to the original institution.
The sprinkling of blood (τὴν πρόσχυσιν τοῦ αἵματος)
Πρόσχυσις affusion, N.T.o , olxx, oClass. From προσχεῖν to pour on. In the post-Exodus legislation the blood which, in the original institution, was sprinkled on the door-posts and lintels (Exo 12:22), was thrown upon the altar (Deu 16:6), and προσχεῖν in lxx is used of this act almost without exception. See Exo 24:6; Exo 29:16; Lev 1:5, Lev 1:11; Lev 3:2, Lev 3:8, Lev 3:13, etc.
Lest he that destroyed the first-born should touch them (ἵνα μὴ ὁ ὀλοθρεύων τὰ πρωρότοκα θίγῃ αὐτῶν)
Rend. "that the destroyer of the first-born should not touch them," a rendering which brings out more sharply the preventive purpose of the sprinkling of blood. Ὀλοθρεύειν to destroy, N.T.o , oClass. Ὁ ὀλοθρεύων is used in the narrative of Exo 12:23 for the destroying angel. The kindred noun ὀλοθρευτής destroyer (olxx, oClass.) occurs in Co1 10:10 of the plague in Num 16:46-50. For θίγῃ should touch, see on Col 2:21.
Passed through (διέβησαν)
Only three times in N.T. See Luk 16:26; Act 16:9. The simple Βαίνην does not occur in N.T.
The Red Sea (τὴν Ἐρυθρὰν θάλασσαν)
Called by the Israelites the sea, Exo 14:2, Exo 14:9, Exo 14:16, Exo 14:21, Exo 14:28, etc., and, specially, the sea of Suph (sedge, seeds). In lxx always as here except Jdg 11:16, where it is θάλασσα Σὶφ i.e. Suph. By the Greeks the name was at first applied to the whole ocean from the coast of Ethiopia to the island of Taprobana or Ceylon. Afterward, when they learned of the existence of an Indian Ocean, they applied the name merely to the sea below Arabia, and to the Arabian and Persian gulfs.
Which the Egyptians assaying to do (ἧς πεῖραν λαβόντες οἱ Αιγύπτιοι)
The A.V. has assaying, according to the older English usage. Assay is now chiefly used of the testing of precious metals; but in the sense of try it is found in Piers Ploughman, Gower, Chaucer, Shakespeare. Lit. of which (sea) the Egyptians having taken trial. The phrase πεῖραν λαμβάνειν to take trial occurs also in lxx, Deu 28:56. In N.T. only here and Heb 11:36.
Were drowned (κατεπόθησαν)
Lit. were drunk down. See on Mat 23:24. Comp. lxx, Exo 15:4, and in N.T. Co1 15:54; Co2 2:7; Co2 5:4.
Compassed about (κυκλωθέντα)
Comp. Luk 21:20; Joh 10:24. oP.
The harlot Rahab (Ῥαὰβ ἡ πόρνη)
See Joshua 2; Jos 6:17, and comp. Jam 2:25. Rahab's occupation is stated without mincing, and the lodging of the spies at her house was probably not a matter of accident. Very amusing are the efforts of some earlier expositors to evade the fact of a harlot's faith, by rendering πόρνη landlady.
Perished not with (οὐ συναπώλετο)
N.T.o. In lxx see Num 16:26; Psa 25:9; Psa 27:3.
Them that believed not (τοῖς ἀπειθήσασιν)
Rend. "them that were disobedient." Simple disbelief is expressed by ἀπιστεῖν, ἀπιστία: disbelief as it manifests itself in disobedience, by ἀπειθεῖν. Ἁπειθεῖν is ἀπιστεῖν on its active side. See on Joh 3:36, and comp. Heb 3:18; Heb 4:6, Heb 4:11; Rom 11:30, Rom 11:32, contrasting with Rom 11:20, Rom 11:23. Ἁπειθεῖν here describes the failure to be persuaded that God had given the land to the Israelites, and the consequent refusal to surrender Jericho. Rahab's faith is shown Jos 2:9-11.
When she had received the spies (δεξαμένη τοὺς κατασκόπους)
Rend. "having received." For this sense of friendly reception as a guest see Luk 10:8, Luk 10:10. Κατάσκοπος a spy, N.T.o. lxx, Gen 42:9, Gen 42:11, Gen 42:14; Sa1 26:4.
With peace (μετ' εἰρήνηνς)
The phrase only here and Act 15:33. Quite often in lxx, as Gen 15:15; Gen 26:29; Exo 18:23; Deu 20:20; Jdg 8:9. In N.T. ἐν εἰρήνῃ in peace (Act 16:36; Jam 2:16): εἰς εἰρήνην into peace (Mar 5:34; Luk 7:50; Luk 8:48); both these very often in lxx. Rahab received the spies without enmity, and did not allow them to suffer harm from others. An interesting parallel is furnished by Dante, Purg. ii. 99, in the case of the pilot-angel who conveys souls to the shore of Purgatory.
"He, sooth to say, for three months past has taken
Whoever wished to enter, with all peace" (without interposing any obstacle.)
To tell (διηγούμενον)
Lit. the time will fail me telling: if I tell. See on Mar 9:9, and comp. Mar 5:16; Luk 8:39; Luk 9:10; Act 9:27, and διήγησις narrative (A.V. declaration), Luk 1:1. Gideon, etc. These names of the four judges are not enumerated in chronological order. Samuel is closely connected with David as in the history, but with τε καὶ as introducing the new order of the prophets.
Through faith (διὰ πίστεως)
This formula is now substituted for the instrumental dative πίστει by faith. The reason for the change cannot perhaps be accurately formulated, but will be appreciated by one who feels the Greek idioms as better suiting the more general illustrations which follow.
Subdued kingdoms (κατηγωνίσαντο βασιλείας)
The verb N.T.o , olxx, signifies fought down; overcame by struggle, as Barak, Judges 4; Gideon, Judges 7; Jephthah, Judges 11; David, 2 Samuel 5.
Wrought righteousness (ἠργάσαντο δικαιοσύνην)
For the phrase comp. Act 10:35. Referring not merely to their personal virtues, but to the public exercise of these as leaders, as Sa2 8:15; Ch1 18:14; Sa1 12:4. Faith showed itself in the association of righteousness with power. Comp. Isa 9:7; Isa 54:14; Kg1 10:9.
Obtained promises (ἐπέτυχον ἐπαγγελιῶν)
See on Heb 6:15.
The verb means to fence in; block up. Rare in N.T. See Rom 3:19; Co2 11:10, and comp. φραγμός a fence, Mat 21:33; Eph 2:14. Occasionally in lxx, as Job 38:8; Pro 21:13; Zac 14:5. The reference is no doubt to Daniel, Dan 6:22; comp. 1 Macc. 2:60.
Quenched the violence of fire (ἔσβεσαν δύναμιν πυρός)
Rend. "the power of fire." Reference to the three Hebrews, Daniel 3; comp. 1 Macc. 2:59.
Edge of the sword (στόματα μαχαίρης)
Lit. mouths of the sword. See on Heb 4:12. The plural edges indicates frequent assaults.
Out of weakness (ἀπὸ ἀσθενείας)
Rend. "from weakness." For the sense of ἀπὸ from, see Luk 5:15. The meaning is not confined to sickness, as in the case of Hezekiah (2 Kings 20; Isaiah 38). The main reference is probably to Samson, Jdg 16:28 ff.
The armies of the aliens (παρεμβολὰς ἀλλοτρίων)
Omit both the's in translation. For παρεμβολὰς see on Act 21:34. Very often in lxx. Aliens, foreign foes or invaders.
The recorded raisings from the dead are mostly for women. See Kg1 17:17 ff.; Kg2 4:17 ff. Comp. Luk 7:11 ff.; John 11; Acts 9. The reference here is to the first two.
Raised to life again (ἐξ ἀναστάσεως)
Rend. "by a resurrection"; and for the force of ἐξ comp. Rom 1:4.
Were tortured (ἐτυμπανίσθησαν)
N.T.o. lxx once, 1 Samuel 21:13. Originally to beat a drum (τύμπανον). Hence to beat, to cudgel. The A.V. of Sa1 21:13, describing the feigned madness of David, renders ἐτυμπάνιζεν "he scrabbled on the doors of the gate," meaning that he beat the doors like a madman. Τύμπανον means a drum or a drumstick; hence a cudgel; so Aristoph. Plut. 476, where it is associated with κύφων a pillory. Comp. 2 Macc. 6:19, 28. The meaning here is, were beaten to death with clubs, the word being used to represent cruel torture in general.
Not accepting deliverance (οὐπροσδεξάμενοι τὴν ἀπολύτρωσιν)
For the verb, see on Heb 10:34. The (τὴν) deliverance offered at the price of denying their faith. See 2 Macc. 6:21-27.
A better resurrection (κρείττονος ἀναστάσεως)
Better than a resurrection like those granted to the women above mentioned, which gave merely a continuation of life on earth. Comp. 2 Macc. 7:9, 14.
Of cruel mockings (ἐμπαιγμῶν)
N.T.o , oClass. Rare in lxx. Cruel is an insertion of A.V. Rend. "of mockings." Ἐμπαιγμονὴ mockery (olxx, Class.) is found Pe2 3:3 (note); and ἐμπαίκτης mocker or scoffer, Pe2 3:3; Jde 1:18. Ἑμπαίζειν to mock is quite frequent in the Synoptic Gospels, and occurs also in lxx.
They were stoned (ἐλιθάσθησαν)
A characteristic Jewish punishment. See Ch2 24:20; Mat 23:37; Joh 10:31; Act 5:26; Act 7:59; Act 14:19. The verb λιθοβολεῖν is also used in Matthew, Luke, and Acts, and once in this epistle, Heb 12:20.
Were sawn asunder (ἐπίσθησαν)
N.T.o. As Isaiah, according to tradition.
Were tempted (ἐπειράσθησαν)
If the reading is correct, which seems probable, the reference is probably to inducements offered them to abandon their loyalty to God. It has seemed to many out of place, because occurring in the midst of a list of different forms of violent death.
Of whom the world was not (ὧν οὐκ ἦν ἄξιος ὁ κόσμος)
This clause falls into the series of participles which precedes it; the form of the relative sentence being adopted because of the lack of a proper participial phrase to express the statement. At the same time it prepares the way for the following clause in which the participial construction is resumed. Rend. "they went about in sheepskins and goatskins, being destitute, afflicted, evil-entreated, men of whom the world was not worthy, wandering in deserts," etc. By the world (κόσμος) is not meant the corrupt world, as in John and Paul (see on Heb 11:7), but the world considered as an economy which was unworthy of these, because ruled by sense and not by faith. Their plane of life was higher.
They wandered (πλανώμενοι)
Lit. wandering or straying, apart from the homes and the intercourse of men.
Caves of the earth (ὀπαῖς τῆς γῆς)
Ὁπή only here and Jam 3:11. It means a hole; primarily a place through which one can see (ὄπωπα). In lxx the cleft of the rock in which God placed Moses, Exo 33:22 : a window, a latticed opening, Ecc 12:3: the eye-socket, Zac 14:12 : a hole in the wall, Eze 8:7 : a hole in a tree, 4 Macc. 14:16.
Having obtained a good report (μαρτυρηθέντες)
Rend. "having had witness born to them." See on Heb 11:2.
Having provided (προβλεψαμένου)
For us (περὶ ἡμῶν)
The better thing is for us. It was not for them: they lived in the assurance of a future time better than their own, and in this assurance of faith, did their work and bore their burden in their own time. It is one of the achievements of faith to be cheerfully willing to be only a stage to some better thing which we cannot share.
That they without us should not be made perfect (ἵνα μὴ χωρὶς ἡμῶν τελειωθῶσιν)
Each successive stage of history gathers up into itself the fruit of preceding stages. This passage teaches the solidarity of humanity in its work as well as in itself. The man of the present requires the work and suffering and achievement of the men of the past to complete him and his work. The future men will, in like manner, require the work and suffering and achievement of the men of today to complete them. The whole creation, in all its successive aeons, moves together toward
"The one far-off, divine event."