Vincent's Word Studies, by Marvin R. Vincent, , at sacred-texts.com
For this cause
Seeing ye are so builded together.
Of Christ Jesus (τοῦ Χριστοῦ Ἱησοῦ)
Notice the article, the Christ, and see on Eph 2:13.
To whom Paul was expressly sent, and in preaching to whom he had fallen into the hands of the civil law.
If ye have heard (εἴγε ἠκούσατε)
Here begins a long digression extending to Eph 3:14. If, Rev., if so be, means upon the supposition that; not implying the certainty of the assumption, though this shade of meaning is given by the context. The words are a reminder of his preaching among them.
See on Eph 1:10; see on Col 1:25. The divine arrangement or disposition.
Whereby (πρὸς ὃ)
Lit., agreeably to which, namely, what he had written.
Mystery of Christ
The mystery which is Christ. See on Col 1:26; see on Rom 11:25.
Other generations (ἑτέραις)
Other and different. See on Mat 6:24.
Fellow-heirs - of the same body - partakers (συγκληρόνομα σύσσωμα συμμέτοχα)
The second of these words occurs only here; the third only here and Eph 5:7. They are strange to classical Greek.
Gift of the grace
The gift in which the grace of God consisted, the apostleship to the Gentiles.
By the effectual working of His power (κατὰ τὴν ἐνέργειαν τῆς δυνάμεως αὐτοῦ)
Rev., better, according to the working, etc. The gift was bestowed in accordance with that efficiency which could transform Saul the persecutor into Paul the apostle to the Gentiles.
Less than the least (τῷ ἐλαχιστοτέρῳ)
Only here in the New Testament, and very characteristic. A comparative is formed upon a superlative: more least than all the saints. Compare Co1 15:8.
Only here and Rom 11:33 (note). Which cannot be tracked out.
To make all men see (φωτίσαι πάντας)
Lit., to enlighten.
The admission of the Gentiles into covenant privileges.
From the beginning of the world (ἀπὸ τῶν αἰώνων)
Lit., from the ages. Rev., from all ages. See on Col 1:26.
All things (τὰ πάντα)
To the intent that
Connect with the matter of the two preceding verses. Grace was given me to preach Christ and to enlighten men as to the long-hidden mystery of the admission of the Gentiles, in order that now, etc.
In contrast with all ages.
Principalities and powers
Good angels. See on Eph 1:21.
By the Church (διά)
Better, through, as Rev. By means of the Church. This agrees with what was said of the Church as the fullness of God, Eph 1:23.
Manifold wisdom (πολυποίκιλος σοφία)
A very striking phrase. The adjective occurs only here, and means variegated. It is applied to pictures, flowers, garments. Ποίκιλον is used in the Septuagint of Joseph's coat, Gen 37:3. Through the Church God's wisdom in its infinite variety is to be displayed - the many-tinted wisdom of God - in different modes of power, different characters, methods of training, providences, forms of organization, etc.
Eternal purpose (πρόθεσιν τῶν αἰώνων)
Lit., the purpose of the ages.
He wrought (ἐποίησεν)
Carried into effect. See on fulfilling, Eph 2:3.
Faith of Him (τῆς πίστεως αὐτοῦ)
As often, for faith in Him.
Lit., lose heart. Κακός in classical Greek, but not in the New Testament, sometimes means cowardly.
For this cause
Resuming the interrupted clause in Eph 3:1, and having still in mind the closing thought of ch. 2. Seeing ye are so built together in Christ, for this cause, etc.
Omit of our Lord Jesus Christ.
Of whom (ἐξ οὗ)
The whole family (πᾶσα πατριὰ)
Rev., more correctly, every family. Πατριά is, more properly, a group of families - all who claim a common πατήρ. father. Family, according to our usage of the term, would be οἶκος house. The Israelites were divided into tribes (φυλαί), and then into πατπιαί, each deriving its descent from one of Jacob's grandsons; and these again into οἶκοι houses. So Joseph was both of the house (οἴκου) and family (πατριᾶς) of David. We find the phrase οἶκοι πατριῶν houses of the families, Exo 12:3; Num 1:2. The word occurs only three times in the New Testament: here, Luk 2:4; Act 3:25. In the last-named passage it is used in a wide, general sense, of nations. Family is perhaps the best translation, if taken in its wider meaning of a body belonging to a common stock - a clan. Fatherhood (Rev., in margin), following the Vulgate paternitas, means rather the fact and quality of paternity. Observe the play of the words, which can scarcely be reproduced in English, pater, patria.
In heaven and earth
To the angelic hosts and the tribes of men alike, God is Father. There may be a suggestion of the different ranks or grades of angels, as principalities, thrones, powers, etc. See Eph 3:10. "Wherever in heaven or in earth beings are grouped from their relation to a father, the name they bear in each case is derived from the Father" (Riddle).
Rev., power. Appropriate to the succeeding phrase the inner man, since it signifies faculty or virtue not necessarily manifest.
In the inward man (εἰς τὸν ἔσω ἄνθρωπον)
The force of the preposition is into: might entering into the inmost personality. Inward man: compare outward man, Co2 4:16. It is the rational and moral I; the essence of the man which is conscious of itself as a moral personality. In the unregenerate it is liable to fall under the power of sin (Rom 7:23); and in the regenerate it needs constant renewing and strengthening by the Spirit of God, as here. Compare the hidden man of the heart, Pe1 3:4.
May dwell (κατοικῆσαι)
Settle down and abide. Take up His permanent abode, so that ye may be a habitation (κατοικητήριον) of God. See on Eph 2:22. The connection is with the preceding clause: "to be strengthened, etc., so that Christ may dwell, the latter words having at once a climactic and an explanatory force, and adding the idea of permanency to that of strengthening.
By faith (διὰ τῆς πίστεως)
Through your (the article) faith, as the medium of appropriating Christ. Faith opens the door and receives Him who knocks. Rev 3:20.
Rooted and grounded (ἐῤῥιζωμένοι καὶ τεθεμελιωμένοι)
Compare Col 2:7, and see note. Grounded or founded, from θεμέλιον foundation. The dwelling in Eph 3:17 would naturally suggest the foundation. Rooting and grounding are consequences of the strengthening of the Spirit and of Christ's indwelling.
Standing first in the sentence and emphatic, as the fundamental principle of christian life and knowledge.
May be able (ἐξισχύσητε)
Rev., may be strong. This compound verb occurs only here. The preposition ἐξ has the force of fully or eminently. Ἱσχύς is strength embodied; inhering in organized power. Hence it is an advance on δυνάμει might in Eph 3:16 (see note). Paul prays that the inward might or virtue may issue in ability to grasp. Compare Luk 14:30 (note); Luk 16:3 (note); Act 27:16 (note); Jam 5:16 (note).
To English readers this conveys the meaning understand. Rev., better, apprehend: grasp. See on Joh 1:5, and compare Phi 3:12, Phi 3:13.
No special interpretations are to be given to these words. The general idea of vastness is expressed in these ordinary terms for dimension. Notice that the article is attached only to the first, breadth, all the rest being included under the one article; the intention being to exhibit the love of Christ in its entire dimension, and not to fix the mind on its constituent parts.
To know (γνῶναι)
Practically, through experience; while apprehend marks the knowledge as conception.
Love of Christ
Christ's love to us. Human love to Christ could not be described in these terms.
Which passeth knowledge (τὴν ὑπερβάλλουσαν τῆς γνώσεως).
Which surpasses mere knowledge without the experience of love. Note the play on the words know and knowledge.
That ye might be filled with all the fullness of God (ἵνα πληρωθῆτε εἰς πᾶν τὸ πλήρωμα τοῦ θεοῦ)
Note the recurrence of that; that He would grant you; that ye may be strong; that ye may be filled. With is better rendered unto, to the measure or standard of. Fullness of God is the fullness which God imparts through the dwelling of Christ in the heart; Christ, in whom the Father was pleased that all the fullness should dwell (Col 1:19), and in whom dwelleth all the fullness of the Godhead (Col 2:9).
Exceeding abundantly (ὑπερεκπερισσοῦ)
Only here, Th1 3:10; Th1 5:13. Superabundantly. One of the numerous compounds of ὑπέρ beyond, over and above, of which Paul is fond. Of twenty-eight words compounded with this preposition in the New Testament, Paul alone uses twenty. For the order and construction, see next note.
Above all (ὑπὲρ πάντα)
These words should not be connected with that, as A.V. and Rev.: "above all that we ask," etc. They form with do an independent clause. The next clause begins with exceedingly above, and is construed with ὧν that which we ask, etc. Read the whole, "Unto Him who is able to do beyond all, exceedingly above that which," etc.
Properly, the glory, which is His due.
In the Church
Through which His many-tinted wisdom is to be displayed, and which is His fullness. The variety of the divine wisdom is again hinted at in all that we ask or think.
By Christ Jesus (ἐν)
Rev., better, in. As the Church is the outward domain in which God is to be praised, so Christ is the spiritual sphere of this praise.
Throughout all ages, world without end (εἰς πάσας τὰς γενεὰς τοῦ αἰῶνος τῶν αἰώνων)
Lit., unto all the generations of the age of the ages. Eternity is made up of ages, and ages of generations.