Vincent's Word Studies, by Marvin R. Vincent, , at sacred-texts.com
2 Corinthians 9:4
Confident boasting (ὑποστάσει)
Primarily something put under, foundation, ground; so substance (sub, stans, standing under), substantial quality: thence steadiness, confidence. Compare Heb 3:14; Heb 11:1. In the Septuagint the word represents fifteen different Hebrew words.
2 Corinthians 9:5
Notice the thrice repeated before, emphasizing the injunction to have everything ready before Paul's arrival.
Make up beforehand (προκαταρτίσωσιν)
Adjust. See on Mat 4:21; see on Mat 21:16; see on Luk 6:40; see on Pe1 5:10.
Lit., blessing. In this sense only here in the New Testament. In the Septuagint indifferently of gift or blessing. See Gen 33:11; Jdg 1:15; Eze 34:26. In Pro 11:25, liberal soul is rendered by Sept., εὐλογούμενη blessed.
Whereof ye had notice before (προεπηγγελημένην)
Rev., better, your afore-promised bounty. The bounty promised by you, or by me on your behalf.
2 Corinthians 9:6
Bountifully (ἐπ' εὐλογίαις)
Lit., with blessings. Compare Co1 9:10, "plow in hope (ἐπ' ἐλπίδι)."
2 Corinthians 9:7
Read προῄρηται, perfect tense, hath purposed.
Grudgingly (ἐκ λύπης)
Lit., out of sorrow.
Only here in the New Testament. See on the kindred ἱλαρότης cheerfulness, note on Rom 12:8.
God loveth, etc.
From Pro 22:9, where the Hebrew is, a kind man shall be blessed. Sept., God blesseth a man who is cheerful and a giver.
2 Corinthians 9:8
Always - all - in everything
Nearly reproducing the play on the word all in the Greek.
Only here and Ti1 6:6. The kindred adjective αὐταρκης A.V., content, occurs Phi 4:11 (see note). The word properly means self-sufficiency, and is one of those which show Paul's acquaintance with Stoicism, and the influence of its vocabulary upon his own. It expressed the Stoic conception of the wise man as being sufficient in himself, wanting nothing and possessing everything. Here, not in the sense of sufficiency of worldly goods, but of that moral quality, bound up with self-consecration and faith, which renders the new self in Christ independent of external circumstances.
2 Corinthians 9:9
He hath dispersed abroad (ἐσκόρπισεν)
As in sowing, Co2 9:6. Psa 112:9. Almost literally after the Hebrew and Septuagint.
2 Corinthians 9:10
Rev., supplieth. See on add, Pe2 1:5.
Both minister bread, etc.
Construe bread with supplieth, as Rev., supplieth seed to the sow and bread for food.
Minister and multiply (χορηγήσαι καὶ πληθύναι)
The correct reading is the future, χορηγήσει καὶ πληθυνεῖ shall supply and multiply.
The fruits (τὰ γενήματα)
Lit., what has been begotten or born. Used of men, Mat 3:7, A.V., generation, Rev., offspring. Elsewhere of fruits, as fruit of the vine, Mar 14:25.
2 Corinthians 9:11
Better singleness or simplicity of heart. See on Rom 12:8.
2 Corinthians 9:12
Also rendered ministry or ministration (A.V. and Rev.), as Luk 1:23; Heb 8:6; Heb 9:21. See on Luk 1:23. The word is used of this same contribution, Rom 15:7.
Supplieth (ἐστὶν προσαναπληροῦσα)
Lit., fills up by adding to. Only here and Co2 11:9. Supplementing what the saints lack. Through many thanksgivings. The need of the poor is filled, like an empty vessel, to the brim, and the supply overflows in the thanksgiving which it calls out. Thus christian beneficence does a double work, in giving relief and in generating thankfulness.
2 Corinthians 9:13
Experiment of this ministration (δοκιμῆς τῆς διακονίας ταύτης).
Commentators differ as to the interpretation; the difference hinging on the question whether the trial (experiment) applies to the service itself, or to those who render it: hence either "the proving of you by this ministration," as Rev., or the tried character of this ministration. Δοκιμή may mean, either the process of proving or the state of being approved, approvedness. The difference is immaterial.
Your professed subjection (ὑποταγῇ τῆς ὁμολογίας ὑμῶν)
A vicious hendiadys. Lit., as Rev., the obedience of your confession; that is, the obedience which results from your christian confession. Ὁμολογία is once rendered in A.V. confession, Ti1 6:13; and elsewhere profession. Both renderings occur in Ti1 6:12, Ti1 6:13. Rev., in every case, confession. A similar variation occurs in the rendering of ὁμολογέω, though in all but five of the twenty-three instances confess is used. Rev. retains profess in Mat 7:23; Tit 1:16, and changes to confess in Ti1 6:12. In Mat 14:7, promised (A.V. and Rev., see note), and in Heb 13:15, giving thanks; Rev., which make confession. Etymologically, confession is the literal rendering of ὁμολογία, which is from ὁμόν together, λέγω to say; con together, fateor to say. The fundamental idea is that of saying the same thing as another; while profess (pro forth, fateor to say) is to declare openly. Hence, to profess Christ is to declare Him publicly as our Lord: to confess Christ is to declare agreement with all that He says. When Christ confesses His followers before the world, He makes a declaration in agreement with what is in His heart concerning them. Similarly, when He declares to the wicked "I never knew you" ("then will I profess, ὁμολογήσω"), a similar agreement between His thought and His declaration is implied. The two ideas run into each other, and the Rev. is right in the few cases in which it retains profess, since confess would be ambiguous. See, for example, Tit 1:16.
Liberal distribution (ἁπλότητι τῆς κοινωνίας)
Rev., correctly, liberality of your contribution. Κοινωνία communion includes the idea of communication of material things, and hence sometimes means that which is communicated. See on Act 2:42; so Rom 15:26; Heb 13:16. Compare the similar use of κοινωνέω, Rom 12:13, distributing; Phi 4:15, communicated.
2 Corinthians 9:15
These abrupt thanksgivings are common in Paul's writings. See Rom 9:5; Rom 11:33; Co1 15:57; Gal 1:5; Eph 3:20.
Lit., not to be told throughout. Only here in the New Testament.