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Vincent's Word Studies, by Marvin R. Vincent, [1886], at

Acts Chapter 22

Acts 22:1

act 22:1

Defence (ἀπολογίας)

See on answer, Pe1 3:15.

Acts 22:2

act 22:2

Kept - silence (παρέσχον ἡσυχίαν)

Lit., gave quiet.

Acts 22:3

act 22:3

At the feet

Referring to the Jewish custom of the pupils sitting on benches or on the floor, while the teacher occupied an elevated platform.


One of the seven Rabbis to whom the Jews gave the title Rabban. Rab, "teacher," was the lowest degree; Rabbi, "my teacher," the next higher; and Rabban, "our teacher," the highest. Gamaliel was a liberal Pharisee. "As Aquinas among the schoolmen was called Doctor Angelicus, and Bonaventura Doctor Seraphicus, so Gamaliel was called the Beauty of the Law. He had no antipathy to the Greek learning. Candor and wisdom seem to have been features of his character" (Conybeare and Hewson). See Act 5:34 sq.

Instructed (πεπαιδευμένος)

See on chastise, Luk 23:16.

According to the perfect manner (κατὰ ἀκρίβειαν)

Lit., according to the strictness. See on perfect understanding, Luk 1:3; and diligently, Act 18:25. Compare, also, Act 18:26; Act 26:5.

Zealous (ζηλωτὴς)

Or a zealot. On the word as a title, see on Mar 3:18.

Acts 22:4

act 22:4


See on Act 9:2.

Acts 22:5

act 22:5

Estate of the elders (πρεσβυτέριον)

The eldership or Sanhedrim.


The imperfect: was journeying.

Acts 22:6

act 22:6

About noon

Not mentioned in ch. 9.

Acts 22:8

act 22:8

Of Nazareth (ὁ Ναζωραῖος)

Lit., the Nazarene. Not mentioned in ch. 9.

Acts 22:9

act 22:9

Heard not (οὐκ ἤκουσαν)

The verb is to be taken in the sense of understood, as Mar 4:33; Co1 14:2, which explains the apparent discrepancy with Act 9:7.

Acts 22:11

act 22:11

For the glory of that light

The cause of his blindness is not stated in ch. 9.

Acts 22:12

act 22:12

A devout man, etc

In Act 9:10, he is called a disciple. Paul here "affirms that he was not introduced to Christianity by an opponent of Judaism, but by a strict Jew" (Gloag).

Acts 22:13

act 22:13

Stood (ἐπιστὰς)

More correctly, as Rev., "standing by (ἐπί)."

Receive thy sight (ἀνάβλεψον)

Better, look up. See the following words: I looked up upon him. The word admits of both translations, to look up and to recover sight.

I looked up upon him

Some unite both meanings here: I looked up with recovered sight. So Rev., in margin.

Acts 22:14

act 22:14

The God of our fathers - Just One

A conciliatory touch in Paul's speech, mentioning both God and Christ by their Jewish names. Compare Act 3:14; Act 7:52.

Hath chosen (προεχειρίσατο)

See on Act 3:20. Better, as Rev., appointed.

Acts 22:15

act 22:15

All men

He keeps back the offensive word Gentiles (Act 9:15).

Acts 22:16

act 22:16

Wash away (ἀπόλουσαι)

See on Act 16:33.

Acts 22:17

act 22:17

I was in a trance (γενέσθαι με ἐν ἐκστάσει)

Rev., more correctly, I fell into a trance; the verb meaning to become, rather than the simple to be. On trance, see note on astonishment, Mar 5:42; and compare note on Act 10:10.

Acts 22:20

act 22:20


Better, as Rev., witness. The special sense of the word was probably not in use at this time. See on Act 1:22. It occurs, however, in Rev 2:13; Rev 17:6.

Standing by

See on Act 22:13.

Consenting (συνευδοκῶν)

See on allow, Luk 11:48; and compare Act 8:1.


See on Luk 23:32.

Acts 22:21

act 22:21


"The fatal word, which hitherto he had carefully avoided, but which it was impossible for him to avoid any longer, was enough....The word 'Gentiles,' confirming all their worst suspicions, fell like a spark on the inflammable mass of their fanaticism" (Farrar, "Life and Work of Paul").

Acts 22:22

act 22:22

They gave him audience (ἤκουον)

The imperfect. Up to this word they were listening.

Lifted up their voice, etc

"Then began one of the most odious and despicable spectacles which the world can witness, the spectacle of an oriental mob, hideous with impotent rage, howling, yelling, cursing, gnashing their teeth, flinging about their arms, waving and tossing their blue and red robes, casting dust into the air by handfuls, with all the furious gesticulations of an uncontrolled fanaticism" (Farrar). Hackett cites Sir John Chardin ("Travels into Persia and the East Indies") as saying that it is common for the peasants in Persia, when they have a complaint to lay before their governors, to repair to them by hundreds or a thousand at once. They place themselves near the gate of the palace, where they suppose they are most likely to be seen and heard, and there set up a horrid outcry, rend their garments, and throw dust into the air, at the same time demanding justice. Compare Sa2 16:13.

Acts 22:24

act 22:24

Examined (ἀνετάζεσθαι)

Only here and Act 22:29. Not found in classical Greek. Apocrypha, Susanna, ver. 14.

By scourging (μάστιξιν)

Lit., with scourges.

Acts 22:25

act 22:25

Bound him with thongs (προέτειναν αὐτὸν τοῖς ἱμᾶσιν)

Against the rendering of the A. V. is the word προέειναν, they stretched forward, in allusion to the position of the victim for scourging, and the article with thongs; "the thongs," with reference to some well-known instrument. If the words referred simply to binding him, with thongs would be superfluous. It is better, therefore, to take thongs as referring to the scourge, consisting of one or more lashes or cords, a sense in which it occurs in classical Greek, and to render stretched him out for (or before) the thongs. The word is used elsewhere in the New Testament of a shoe-latchet (Mar 1:7; Luk 3:16; Joh 1:27).


See on Act 16:37.

Acts 22:28

act 22:28

Sum (κεφαλαίου)

Lit., capital. The purchase of Roman citizenship was an investment. Under the first Roman emperors it was obtained only at large cost and with great difficulty; later, it was sold for a trifle.

I was free-born (ἐγὼ καὶ γεγέννημαι)

Lit., I am even so born, leaving the mind to supply free or a Roman. Better, as Rev., I am a Roman born.

Acts 22:30

act 22:30

Brought Paul down

To the meeting-place of the Sanhedrim: probably not their usual place of assembly, which lay within the wall of partition, which Lysias and his soldiers would not have been allowed to pass.

Next: Acts Chapter 23