Vincent's Word Studies, by Marvin R. Vincent, , at sacred-texts.com
Captain of the temple
It was the duty of the Levites to keep guard at the gates of the temple, in order to prevent the unclean from entering. To them the duties of the temple-police were entrusted, under the command of an official known in the New Testament as "the captain of the temple," but in Jewish writings chiefly as "the man of the temple mount." Josephus speaks of him as a person of such consequence as to be sent, along with the high-priest, prisoner to Rome.
Came upon (ἐπέστησαν)
Or stood by them, suddenly. Compare Luk 24:4; Act 22:20; Act 23:11. Of dreams or visions, to appear to.
Being grieved (διαπονούμενοι)
Only here and Act 16:18. The Rev. renders the force of διά by "sore troubled;" vexed through and through.
The Sadducees denied both the resurrection and a future state. "In the Gospels the Pharisees are represented as the great opponents of Christ; in the Acts it is the Sadducees who are the most violent opponents of the apostles. The reason of this seems to be, that in the Gospels Jesus Christ came in direct collision with the Pharisees, by unmasking their hypocrisies and endangering their influence among the people; whereas the apostles, in testifying to the resurrection of Christ, opposed the creed of the Sadducees. Perhaps, also, in attacking the apostles, who taught the resurrection of that Jesus whom the Pharisees had persecuted and crucified, the Sadducees aimed an indirect blow at the favorite dogma of their rival sect" (Gloag, "Commentary on Acts").
In hold (εἰς τήρησιν)
A somewhat antiquated rendering. Better, as Rev., in ward. See on Pe1 1:4.
The number was about five thousand
Translate ἐγενήθη as Rev., came to be; indicating the addition to the original number of the many that believed.
What power - what name
Lit., what sort of power; what kind of name.
Have ye done
The ye closes the sentence in the Greek with a contemptuous emphasis: you people.
Salvation (ἡ σωτηρία)
Note the article: the salvation; the Messianic deliverance.
See on freely, Act 2:29.
The word, meaning originally to seize upon or lay hold of, occurs frequently in the New Testament in different phases of this original sense. Thus, to apprehend or grasp, Eph 3:18; Phi 3:12, Phi 3:13; Rom 9:30 : of seizure by a demon, Mar 9:18 : of something coming upon or overtaking, Joh 12:35; Th1 5:4 : of comprehending, grasping mentally, as here, Act 10:34; Act 25:25.
Or, very literally, unlettered. With special reference to Rabbinic culture, the absence of which was conspicuous in Peter's address.
Originally, one in a private station, as opposed to one in office or in public affairs. Therefore one without professional knowledge, a layman; thence, generally, ignorant, ill-informed; sometimes plebeian, common. In the absence of certainty it is as well to retain the meaning given by the A. V., perhaps with a slight emphasis on the want of professional knowledge. Compare Co1 14:16, Co1 14:23, Co1 14:24; Co2 11:6.
Took knowledge (ἐπεγίνωσκον)
Or recognized. See on Act 3:10.
See on pondered, Luk 2:19.
It spread (διανεμηθῇ)
Only here in New Testament. Lit., be distributed. In Ti2 2:17, "their word will eat as a canker," is, literally, will have distribution or spreading (νομὴν ἕξει). Bengel, however, goes too far when he represents the members of the council as speaking in the figure of a canker. "They regard the whole as a canker."
To speak (φθέγγεσθαι)
See on Pe2 2:16.
Originally, to curtail or dock; to prune as trees: thence to check, keep in bounds, punish.
See on Pe2 2:1.
See on Act 3:13.
Only here in New Testament. Originally, to neigh or snort like a horse. Of men, to give one's self haughty airs, and to act and speak insolently. Philo describes a proud man as "walking on tiptoe, and bridling (φρυαττόμενος), with neck erect like a horse."
Didst anoint (ἔχρισας)
See on Christ, Mat 1:1.
Thy disposing power.
Heart and soul
See on Mar 12:30.
Lit., gave back (ἀπό); as something which they were in duty bound to give.
The money (τὸ χρῆμα)
The sum of money.