The Scofield Bible Commentary, by Cyrus Ingerson Scofield, , at sacred-texts.com
Zechariah 12-14, from one prophecy, the general theme of which is the return of the Lord and the establishment of the kingdom. The order is:
(1) The siege of Jerusalem preceding the battle of Armageddon (Zac 12:1-3);
(2) the battle itself (Zac 12:4-9);
(3) the "latter rain" in the pouring out of the Spirit and the personal revelation of Christ to the family of David and the remnant in Jerusalem, not merely as the glorious Deliverer, but as the One whom Israel pierced and has long rejected (Zac 12:10);
(4) the godly sorrow which follows that revelation (Zac 12:11-14);
(5) the cleansing fountain (Zac 13:1) then to be effectually "opened" to Israel.
Kingdom in Old Testament, Summary:
I. Dominion over the earth before the call of Abraham
(1) Dominion over creation was given to the first man and woman (Gen 1:26); (Gen 1:28). Through the fall this dominion was lost, Satan becoming "prince of this world"; (Mat 4:8-10); (Joh 14:30).
(2) After the flood, the principle of human government was established under the covenant with Noah
(See Scofield) - (Gen 9:1).
Biblically this is still the charter of all Gentile government.
II. The Theocracy in Israel. The call of Abraham involved, with much else, the creation of a distinctive people through whom great purposes of God toward the race might be worked out.
(see "Israel" (Gen 12:1-3); (Rom 11:26).
Among these purposes is the establishment of a universal kingdom. The order of the development of Divine rule in Israel is:
(1) The mediatorship of Moses (Exo 3:1-10); (Exo 19:9); (Exo 24:12).
(2) The leadership of Joshua (Jos 1:1-5).
(3) The institution of Judges (Jdg 2:16-18).
(4) The popular rejection of the Theocracy, and choice of a king -- Saul, (Sa1 8:1-7); (Sa1 9:12-17).
III. The Davidic kingdom
(1) The divine choice of David (Sa1 16:1-13).
(2) The giving of the Davidic Covenant (Sa2 7:8-16); (Psa 89:3); (Psa 89:4); (Psa 89:20); (Psa 89:21); (Psa 89:28-37).
(3) The exposition of the David Covenant by the prophets (Isa 1:25); (Isa 1:26); (Zac 12:6-8).
See margin reference, "Kingdom" and references.
(See Scofield) - (Isa 1:25)
The kingdom as described by the prophets is:
a) Davidic, to be established under an heir of David, who is to be born of a virgin, therefore truly man, but also "Immanuel," "the mighty God, the everlasting Father, the Prince of Peace" (Isa 7:13); (Isa 7:14); (Isa 9:6); (Isa 9:7); (Isa 11:1); (Jer 23:5); (Eze 34:23); (Eze 37:24); (Hos 3:4); (Hos 3:5).
b) A kingdom heavenly in origin, principle, and authority (Dan 2:34); (Dan 2:35); (Dan 2:44); (Dan 2:45) but set up on the earth, with Jerusalem as the capital; (Isa 2:2-4); (Isa 4:3); (Isa 4:5); (Isa 24:23); (Isa 33:20); (Isa 62:1-7); (Jer 23:5); (Jer 31:38-40); (Joe 3:1); (Joe 3:16); (Joe 3:17).
c) The kingdom is to be established first over regathered, restored, and converted Israel, and then to become universal (Psa 2:6-8); (Psa 22:1-3124); (Psa 22:1-10); (Isa 1:2); (Isa 1:3); (Isa 11:1); (Isa 11:10-1360); (Isa 11:12); (Jer 23:5-8); (Jer 30:7-11); (Eze 20:33-40); (Eze 37:21-25); (Zac 9:10); (Zac 14:16-19).
d) The moral characteristics of the kingdom are to be righteousness and peace. The meek, not the proud, will inherit the earth; longevity will be greatly increased; the knowledge of the Lord will be universal; beast ferocity will be removed; absolute equity will be enforced; and outbreaking sin visited with instant judgment; while the enormous majority of earth's inhabitants will be saved (Isa 11:4); (Isa 11:6-9); (Isa 65:20); (Psa 2:9); (Isa 26:9); (Zac 14:16-21). The New Testament (Rev 20:1-5); adds a detail of immense significance -- the removal of Satan from the scene. It is impossible to conceive to what heights of spiritual, intellectual, and physical perfection humanity will attain in this, its coming age of righteousness and peace. (Isa 11:4-9); (Psa 72:1-10).
e) The kingdom is to be established by power, not persuasion, and is to follow divine judgment upon the Gentile world-powers (Psa 2:4-9); (Isa 9:7); (Dan 2:35); (Dan 2:44); (Dan 2:45); (Dan 7:26); (Dan 7:27); (Zac 14:1-19) (See Scofield) - (Zac 6:11).
f) The restoration of Israel and the establishment of the kingdom are connected with an advent of the Lord, yet future (Deu 30:3-5); (Psa 2:1-9); (Zac 14:4).
g) The chastisement reserved for disobedience in the house of David (Sa2 7:14); (Psa 89:30-33) fell in the captivities and world-wide dispersion, since which time, though a remnant returned under prince Zerubbabel, Jerusalem has been under the overlordship of Gentile. But the Davidic Covenant has not been abrogated (Psa 89:33-37) but is yet to be fulfilled. (Act 15:14-17).
(See Scofield) - (Heb 1:4).