The Scofield Bible Commentary, by Cyrus Ingerson Scofield, , at sacred-texts.com
(See Scofield) - (Rom 3:21).
Greek, "kosmos", means "mankind".
(See Scofield) - (Mat 4:8).
(See Scofield) - (Rom 3:23).
That is, condemnation.
(See Scofield) - (Rom 3:23).
(See Scofield) - (Rom 10:10).
Be brought under the judgment of God.
(See Scofield) - (Rom 3:23).
righteousness of God
The righteousness of God is neither an attribute of God, not the changed character of the believer, but Christ Himself, who fully met in our stead and behalf every demand of the law, and who is, but the act of God called imputation (Lev 25:50); (Jam 2:23); "made unto us . . righteousness" (Co1 1:30).
"The believer in Christ is now, by grace, shrouded under so complete and blessed a righteousness that the law from Mt. Sinai can find neither fault nor diminution therein. This is that which is called the righteousness of God by faith." -- Bunyan.
(Co2 5:21); (Rom 4:6); (Rom 10:4); (Phi 3:9); (Rom 3:26).
The literal meanings of the Hebrew, and (Greek, "hamartanō", "sin," "sinner", etc), disclose the true nature of sin in its manifold manifestations.
Sin is transgression, an overstepping of the law, the divine boundary between good and evil (Psa 51:1); (Luk 15:29); iniquity, an act inherently wrong, whether expressly forbidden or not; error, a departure from right; (Psa 51:9); (Rom 3:23); missing the mark, a failure to meet the divine standard; trespass, the intrusion of self-will into the sphere of divine authority (Eph 2:1); lawlessness, or spiritual anarchy (Ti1 1:9); unbelief, or an insult to the divine veracity (Joh 16:9).
Sin originated with Satan (Isa 14:12-14); entered the world through Adam (Rom 5:12); was, and is, universal, Christ alone excepted; (Rom 3:23); (Pe1 2:22); incurs the penalties of spiritual and physical death; (Gen 2:17); (Gen 3:19); (Eze 18:4); (Eze 18:20); (Rom 6:23) and has no remedy but in the sacrificial death of Christ; (Heb 9:26); (Act 4:12) availed of by faith (Act 13:38); (Act 13:39).
Sin may be summarized as threefold:
An act, the violation of, or want of obedience to the revealed will of God;
A state, absence of righteousness;
A nature, enmity toward God.
Redemption, "to deliver by paying a price." The New Testament doctrine. The New Testament records the fulfilment of the Old Testament types and prophecies of redemption through the sacrifice of Christ. The completed truth is set forth in the three words which are translated redemption
(1) Greek, "agorazo", "to purchase in the market." The underlying thought is of a slave-market. The subjects of redemption are "sold under sin" (Rom 7:14) but are, moreover, under sentence of death; (Eze 18:4); (Joh 3:18); (Joh 3:19); (Rom 3:19); (Gal 3:10); and the purchase price is the blood of the Redeemer who dies in their stead; (Gal 3:13); (Co2 5:21); (Mat 20:28); (Mar 10:45); (Ti1 2:6); (Pe1 1:18).
(2) Greek, "exagorazo", "to buy out of the market." The redeemed are never again to be exposed to sale;
(3) Greek, "lutroo", "to loose," "to set free by paying a price" (Joh 8:32); (Gal 4:4); (Gal 4:5); (Gal 4:31); (Gal 5:13); (Rom 8:21). Redemption is by sacrifice and by power
(See Scofield) - (Exo 14:30).
Christ paid the price, the Holy Spirit makes deliverance actual in experience (Rom 8:2).
(See Scofield) - (Isa 59:20).
(See Scofield) - (Rom 1:16).
Grace (in salvation), (Rom 4:4-16); (Rom 3:24).
(See Scofield) - (Joh 1:17).
Literally, a propitiatory sacrifice, through faith by his blood; (Greek, "hilastērion", "place of propitiation"). The word occurs, (Jo1 2:2); (Jo1 4:10) as the translation of the Greek, "hilasmos", "that which propitiates," "a propitiatory sacrifice." "Hilasterion" is used by the Septuagint, and (Heb 9:5) for "mercy-seat." The mercy-seat was sprinkled with atoning blood in the day of atonement (Lev 16:14) in token that the righteous sentence of the law had been (typically) carried out, so that what must else have been a judgment-seat could righteously be a mercy-seat; (Heb 9:11-15); (Heb 4:14-16); a place of communion (Exo 25:21); (Exo 25:22).
In fulfilment of the type, Christ is Himself the "hilasmos", "that which propitiates," and the "hilasterion", "the place of propitiation" -- the mercy-seat sprinkled with His own blood -- the token that in our stead He so honoured the law by enduring its righteous sentence that God, who ever foresaw the cross, is vindicated in having "passed over" sins from Adam to Moses (Rom 5:13) and the sins of believers under the old covenant
(See Scofield) - (Exo 29:33)
and just in justifying sinners under the covenant. There is no thought in propitiation of placating a vengeful God, but of doing right by His holy law and so making it possible for Him righteously to show mercy.
Passing over of sins done aforetime, that is, since Adam.
Compare (Heb 9:15).
"His righteousness", here, is God's consistency with His own law and holiness in freely justifying a sinner who believes in Christ; that is, one in whose behalf Christ has met every demand of the law (Rom 10:4).
Justification and righteousness are inseparably united in Scripture by the fact that the same word (Greek, "dikaios", means "righteous"; Greek, "dikaioo", means "to justify") is used for both. The believing sinner is justified because Christ, having borne his sins on the cross, has been "made unto him righteousness" (Co1 1:30).
Justification originates in grace; (Rom 3:24); (Tit 3:4); (Tit 3:5) is through the redemptive and propitiatory work of Christ, who has vindicated the law; (Rom 3:24); (Rom 3:25); (Rom 5:9) is by faith, not works; (Rom 3:28-30); (Rom 4:5); (Rom 5:1); (Gal 2:16); (Gal 3:8); (Gal 3:24) and may be defined as the judicial act of God whereby He justly declares righteous one who believes on Jesus Christ. It is the Judge Himself (Rom 8:31-34) who thus declares. The justified believer has been in court, only to learn that nothing is laid to his charge. (Rom 8:1); (Rom 8:33); (Rom 8:34).
Do we then
The sinner establishes the law in its right use and honour by confessing his guilt, and acknowledging that by it he is justly condemned. Christ, on the sinner's behalf, establishes the law by enduring its penalty, death.
Compare (Mat 5:17); (Mat 5:18).