The Scofield Bible Commentary, by Cyrus Ingerson Scofield, , at sacred-texts.com
(1) The phrase, kingdom of heaven (literally, of the heavens), is peculiar to Matthew and signifies the Messianic earth rule of Jesus Christ, the Son of David. It is called the kingdom of the heavens because it is the rule of the heavens over the earth (Mat 6:10) The phrase is derived from Daniel, where it is defined; (Dan 2:34-36); (Dan 2:44); (Dan 7:23-27) as the kingdom which the God of heaven will set up after the destruction by "the stone cut out without hands," of the Gentile world-system. It is the kingdom covenanted to David's seed (Sa2 7:7-10) described in the prophets;
(See Scofield) - (Zac 12:8)
and confirmed to Jesus the Christ, the Son of Mary, through the angel Gabriel (Luk 1:32-33).
(2) The kingdom of heaven has three aspects in Matthew:
(a) "at hand" from the beginning of the ministry of John the Baptist (Mat 3:2) to the virtual rejection of the King, and the announcement of the new brotherhood (Mat 12:46-50).
b) in seven "mysteries of the kingdom of heaven," to be fulfilled during the present age (Mat 13:1-52) to which are to be added the parables of the kingdom of heaven which were spoken after those of Mt. 13, and which have to do with the sphere of Christian profession during this age;
c) the prophetic aspect -- the kingdom to be set up after the return of the King in glory. (Mat 24:29-25); (Mat 24:46); (Luk 19:12-19); (Act 15:14-17).
See "Kingdom (New Testament)"; (Luk 1:33); (Co1 15:28).
Compare "Kingdom of God,"
(See Scofield) - (Mat 6:33).
(See Scofield) - (Act 17:30).
(See Scofield) - (Rom 3:23).
So called from a Hebrew, word meaning "separate." After the ministry of the post-exilic prophets ceased, godly men called "Chasidim" (saints) arose who sought to keep alive reverence for the law amongst the descendants of the Jews who returned from the Babylonian captivity. This movement degenerated into the Pharisaism of our Lord's day -- a letter-strictness which overlaid the law with traditional interpretations held to have been communicated by Jehovah to Moses as oral explanations of equal authority with the law itself.
Compare (Mat 15:2-3); (Mar 7:8-13); (Gal 1:14).
The Pharisees were strictly a sect. A member was "chaber" (i.e. "knit together,") (Jdg 20:11) and took an obligation to remain true to the principles of Pharisaism. They were correct, moral, zealous, and self-denying, but self-righteous (Luk 18:9) and destitute of the sense of sin and need (Luk 7:39). They were the foremost prosecutors of Jesus Christ and the objects of His unsparing denunciation (for example); (Mat 23:13-29); (Luk 11:42-43).
Not strictly a sect, but rather those amongst the Jews who denied the existence of angels or other spirits, and all miracles, especially the resurrection. They were the religious rationalists of the time (Mar 12:18-23); (Act 5:15-17); (Act 23:8) and strongly entrenched in the Sanhedrin and priesthood; (Act 4:1); (Act 5:17). They are identified with no affirmative doctrine, but were mere deniers of the supernatural.
Suffer it to be so
Why one who needed no repentance should insist upon receiving a rite which signified confession (Mat 3:6) and repentance (Mat 3:11) is nowhere directly explained. It may be suggested:
(1) That Jesus was now to receive His anointing with the Holy Spirit (Mat 3:16) unto His threefold office of Prophet, Priest, and King. In the Levitical order (Exo 29:4-7) the high priest was first washed, then anointed. While Christ's priestly work did not begin till He "offered Himself without spot to God" (Heb 9:14) and His full manifestation as the King-Priest after the order of Melchizedek awaits the kingdom
(See Scofield) - (Gen 14:18)
yet He was then anointed, once for all.
(2) But John's baptism was the voice of God to Israel, and the believing remnant responded (Mat 3:5). It was an act of righteousness on the part of Him who had become, as to the flesh, an Israelite, to take His place with this believing remnant.
(See Scofield) - (Jo1 3:7).
For the first time the Trinity, foreshadowed in many ways in the Old Testament, is fully manifested. The Spirit descends upon the Son, and at the same moment the Father's voice is heard from heaven.