The Scofield Bible Commentary, by Cyrus Ingerson Scofield, , at sacred-texts.com
(See Scofield) - (Mat 11:12).
Verses (Luk 16:19-31) are not said to be a parable. Rich men and beggars are common; there is no reason why Jesus may not have had in mind a particular case. In no parable is an individual named.
(See Scofield) - (Heb 1:4).
(Greek, "hadēs", "the unseen world," is revealed as the place of departed human spirits between death and resurrection). The word occurs, (Mat 11:23); (Mat 16:18); (Luk 10:15); (Act 2:27); (Act 2:31); (Rev 1:18); (Rev 6:8); (Rev 20:13); (Rev 20:14) and is the equivalent of the Old Testament "sheol."
(See Scofield) - (Hab 2:5).
The Septuagint invariably renders "sheol" by "hades".
(1) Hades before the ascension of Christ. The passages in which the word occurs make it clear that hades was formerly in two divisions, the abodes respectively of the saved and of the lost. The former was called "paradise" and "Abraham's bosom." Both designations were Talmudic, but adopted by Christ in (Luk 16:22); (Luk 23:43). The blessed dead were with Abraham, they were conscious and were "comforted" (Luk 16:25). The believing malefactor was to be, that day, with Christ in "paradise." The lost were separated from the saved by a "great gulf fixed" (Luk 16:26). The representative man of the lost who are now in hades is the rich man of (Luk 16:19-31). He was alive, conscious, in the full exercise of his faculties, memory, etc, and in torment.
(2) Hades since the ascension of Christ. So far as the unsaved dead are concerned, no change of their place or condition is revealed in Scripture. At the judgment of the great white throne, hades will give them up, they will be judged, and will pass into the lake of fire (Rev 20:13); (Rev 20:14). But a change has taken place which affects paradise. Paul was "caught up to the third heaven. . .into paradise" (Co2 12:1-4). Paradise, therefore, is now in the immediate presence of God. It is believed that (Eph 4:8-10) indicates the time of the change. "When he ascended up on high he led a multitude of captives." It is immediately added that He had previously "descended first into the lower parts of the earth," that is, the paradise division of Hades. During the present church-age the saved who died are "absent from the body, at home with the Lord." The wicked dead in hades, and the righteous dead "at home with the Lord," alike await the resurrection; (Job 19:25); (Co1 15:52).
(See Scofield) - (Mat 5:22).