The Scofield Bible Commentary, by Cyrus Ingerson Scofield, , at sacred-texts.com
The feasts of Jehovah. As given to Israel, these were simply seven great religious festivals which were to be observed every year. The first three verses of Leviticus 23 (Lev 23:1-3) do not relate to the feasts but separate the sabbath from the feasts.
The Passover, (Lev 23:4); (Lev 23:5). This feast is memorial and brings into view redemption, upon which all blessing rests. Typically, it stands for "Christ our passover, sacrificed for us." (Co1 5:7).
That is, April.
The feast of Unleavened Bread, (Lev 23:6-8). This feast speaks of communion with Christ, the unleavened wave-loaf, in the full blessing of His redemption, and of a holy walk. The divine order here is beautiful; first redemption, then a holy walk. (Co1 5:6-8); (Co2 7:1); (Gal 5:7-9).
The feast of Firstfruits, (Lev 23:10-14). This feast is typical of resurrection-first of Christ, then of "them that are Christ's at His coming"; (Co1 15:23); (Th1 4:13-18).
The feast of Pentecost, (Lev 23:15-22). The anti-type is the descent of the Holy Spirit to form the church. For this reason leaven is present, because there is evil in the church; (Mat 13:33); (Act 5:1); (Act 5:10); (Act 15:1). Observe, it is now loaves; not a sheaf of separate growths loosely bound together, but a real union of particles making one homogenous body. The descent of the Holy Spirit at Pentecost united the separated disciples into one organism. (Co1 10:16); (Co1 10:17); (Co1 12:12); (Co1 12:13); (Co1 12:20).
The wave-loaves were offered fifty days after the wave-sheaf. This is precisely the period between the resurrection of Christ and the formation of the church at Pentecost by the baptism of the Holy Spirit (Act 2:1-4); (Co1 12:12); (Co1 12:13). See "Church"; (Mat 16:18); (Heb 12:22); (Heb 12:23). With the wave-sheaf no leaven was offered, for there was no evil in Christ; but the wave-loaves, typifying the church, are "baken with leaven," for in the church there is still evil.
The feast of Trumpets, (Lev 23:23-25). This feast is a prophetical type and refers to the future regathering of long-dispersed Israel. A long interval elapses between Pentecost and Trumpets, answering to the long period occupied in the pentecostal work of the Holy Spirit in the present dispensation. Study carefully; (Isa 18:3); (Isa 27:13) (with contexts); (Isa 58:1-14) (entire chapter), and; (Joe 2:1-3); (Joe 2:21); in connection with the "trumpets," and it will be seen that these trumpets, always symbols of testimony, are connected with the regathering and repentance of Israel after the church, or pentecostal period is ended. This feast is immediately followed by the day of atonement.
That is, October; also (Lev 23:27); (Lev 23:34); (Lev 23:39); (Lev 23:41).
The day of Atonement, (Lev 23:26-32). The day is the same described in Lev. 16, but here the stress is laid upon the sorrow and repentance of Israel. In other words, the prophetical feature is made prominent, and that looks forward to the repentance of Israel after her regathering under the Palestinian Covenant, (Deu 30:1-10) preparatory to the second advent of Messiah and the establishment of the kingdom. See the connection between the "trumpet" in (Joe 2:1) and the mourning which follows in verses (Joe 2:11-15).
Also (Zac 12:10-13) in connection with the atonement of (Zac 13:1). Historically the "fountain" of (Zac 13:1) was opened at the crucifixion, but rejected by the Jews of that and the succeeding centuries. After the regathering of Israel the fountain will be efficaciously "opened" to Israel.
(See Scofield) - (Exo 29:33).
The feast of Tabernacles, (Lev 23:34-44) is (like the Lord's Supper for the church) both memorial and prophetic -memorial as to redemption out of Egypt (Lev 23:43) prophetic as to the kingdom-rest of Israel after her regathering and restoration, when the feast again becomes memorial, not for Israel alone, but for all nations. (Zac 14:16-21).