The Scofield Bible Commentary, by Cyrus Ingerson Scofield, , at sacred-texts.com
The Prophetical Books and Introduction to Isaiah
Prophets were men raised up of God in times of declension and apostasy in Israel. They were primarily revivalists and patriots, speaking on behalf of God to the heart and conscience of the nation. The prophetic messages have a twofold character: first, that which was local and for the prophet's time; secondly, that which was predictive of the divine purpose in future. Often the prediction springs immediately from the local circumstances (e.g. Isa 7:1-11 with Isa 7:12-14).
It is necessary to keep this Israelitish character of the prophet in mind. Usually his predictive, equally with his local and immediate ministry, is not didactic and abstract, but has in view the covenant people, their sin and failure, and their glorious future. The Gentile is mentioned as used for the chastisement of Israel, as judged therefore, but also as sharing the grace that is yet to be shown toward Israel. The Church, corporately, is not in the vision of the O.T. prophet (Eph 3:1-6). The future blessing of Israel as a nation rests upon the Palestinian Covenant of restoration and conversion (Deu 30:1-9, refs.), and the Davidic Covenant of the Kingship of the Messiah, David's Son (Sa2 7:8-17, refs.), and this gives to predictive prophecy its Messianic character. The exaltation of Israel is secured in the kingdom, and the kingdom takes its power to bless from the Person of the King, David's Son, but also "Immanuel."
But as the King is also Son of Abraham (Mat 1:1), the promised Redeemer, and as redemption is only through the sacrifice of Christ, so messianic prophecy of necessity presents Christ in a twofold character--a suffering Messiah (e.g. Isaiah 53.), and a reigning Messiah (e.g. Isaiah 11.). This duality, suffering and glory, weakness and power, involved a mystery which perplexed the prophets (Pe1 1:10-12; Luk 24:26-27).
The solution of that mystery lies, as the New Testament makes clear, in the two advents--the first advent to redemption through suffering; the second advent to the kingdom glory, when the national promises to Israel will be fulfilled ( Mat 1:21-23; Luk 2:28-35; Luk 24:46-48, with Luk 1:31-33; Luk 1:68-75; Mat 2:2; Mat 2:6; Mat 19:27-28; Act 2:30-32; Act 15:14-16). The prophets indeed describe the advent in two forms which could not be contemporaneous (e.g. Zac 9:9; contra; Zac 14:1-9), but to them it was not revealed that between the advent to suffering, and the advent to glory, would be accomplished certain "mysteries of the kingdom" (Mat 13:11-16), not that, consequent upon Messiah's rejection, the new Testament Church would be called out. These were, to them, "mysteries hid in God" (Eph 3:1-10).
Speaking broadly, then, predictive prophecy is occupied with the fulfilment of the Palestinian and Davidic Covenants; the Abrahamic Covenant having also its place.
Gentile powers are mentioned as connected with Israel, but prophecy, save in Daniel, Obadiah, Jonah, and Nahum, is not occupied with Gentile world-history. Daniel, as will be see, has a distinctive character.
The predictions of the restoration from the Babylonian captivity at the end of seventy years, must be distinguished from those of the restoration from the present world-wide dispersion. The context is always clear. The Palestinian Covenant Deu 28:1-30.9 is the mould of predictive prophecy in its larger sense--national disobedience, world-wide dispersion, repentance, the return of the Lord, the regathering of Israel and establishment of the kingdom, the conversion and blessing of Israel, and the judgment of Israel's oppressors.
The true division of the prophets is into pre-exilic, viz., in Judah: Isaiah, Jeremiah (extending into the exile), Joel, Obadiah, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah. In Israel: Hosea, Amos, and Jonah. Exilic, Ezekiel and Daniel, both of Judah, but prophesying to the whole nation. Post-exilic, all of Judah: Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi. The division into major and minor prophetic writings, based upon the mere bulk of the books, is unhistoric and non-chronological.
The keys which unlock the meaning of prophecy are: the two advents of Messiah, the advent to suffer (Gen 3:15; Act 1:9), and the advent to reign (Deu 30:3; Act 1:9-11); the doctrine of the Remnant (Isa 10:20, refs), the doctrine of the day of the Lord ( Isa 2:10-22; Rev 19:11-21), and the doctrine of the Kingdom (O.T.; Gen 1:26-28;
See Scofield - Zac 12:8; N.T., Luk 1:31-33;
See Scofield - Co1 15:28). Note). The pivotal chapters, taking prophecy as a whole, are, Deuteronomy 28., 29., 30.; Psalms2.; Daniel 2., 7.
The whole scope of prophecy must be taken into account in determining the meaning of any particular passage (Pe2 1:20). Hence the importance of first mastering the great themes above indicated, which, in this edition of the Scriptures, may readily be done by tracing through the body of the prophetic writings the subjects mentioned in the preceding paragraph. The detail of the "time of the end," upon which all prophecy converges, will be more clearly understood if to those subjects the student adds the Beast (Dan 7:8; Rev 19:20), and Armageddon ( Rev 16:14; Rev 19:17,
See Scofield - Rev 19:17).
Chronological Order of the Prophets (According to Ussher)
I. Prophets Before the Exile
(1) To Nineveh
Jonah, 862 B.C.
(2) To the 10 tribes "Israel"
Amos, 787 B.C.
Hosea, 785-725 B.C.
Obadiah, 887 B.C.
Joel, 800 B.C.
(3) To Judah
Isaiah, 760-698 B.C.
Micah, 750-710 B.C.
Nahum, 713 B.C.
Habakkuk, 626 B.C.
Zephaniah, 630 B.C.
II. Prophets During the Exile
Ezekiel, 595-574 B.C.
Daniel, 607-534 B.C.
III. Prophets After the Exile
Haggai, 520 B.C.
Zechariah, 520-518 B.C.
Malachi, 397 B.C.
Book Introduction - Isaiah
Isaiah is justly accounted the chief of the writing prophets. He has the more comprehensive testimony and is distinctively the prophet of redemption. Nowhere else in the Scriptures written under the law have we so clear a view of grace. The New Testament Church does not appear (Eph 3:3-10), but Messiah in His Person and sufferings, and the blessing of the Gentiles through Him, are in full vision.
Apart from his testimony to his own time, which includes warnings of coming judgments upon the great nations of that day, the predictive messages of Isaiah cover seven great themes:
1. Israel in exile and divine judgment upon Israel's oppressors.
2. The return from Babylon.
3. The manifestation of Messiah in humiliation (e.g. Isaiah 53).
4. The blessing of the Gentiles.
5. The manifestation of Messiah in judgment ("the day of vengeance of our God").
6. The reign of David's righteous Branch in the kingdom-age.
7. The new heavens and the new earth.
Isaiah is in two chief divisions:
1. Looking toward the captivities (Isaiah 1:1-39:8). Key verses, (Isaiah 1:1-2).
2. Looking beyond the captivities (Isaiah 40:1 - 66:24). Key verses, (Isaiah 40:1-2).
These chief divisions fall into subdivisions, as indicated in the text.
The events recorded in Isaiah cover a period of 62 years (Ussher).