The Scofield Bible Commentary, by Cyrus Ingerson Scofield, , at sacred-texts.com
The New Covenant, Summary:
(1) "Better" than the Mosaic covenant not morally, but efficaciously (Heb 7:19); (Rom 8:3); (Rom 8:4).
(2) Established on "better" (that is, unconditional) promises. In the Mosaic Covenant, God said, "If ye will"; (Exo 19:5); in the New Covenant, He says, "I will"; (Heb 8:10); (Heb 8:12).
(3) Under the Mosaic Covenant, obedience sprang from fear; (Heb 2:2); (Heb 12:25-27); under the New Covenant, from a willing heart and mind. (Heb 8:10).
(4) The New Covenant secures the personal revelation of the Lord to every believer (Heb 8:11).
(5) the complete oblivion of sins (Heb 8:12); (Heb 10:17); (Heb 10:3).
(6) rests upon an accomplished redemption (Mat 26:27); (Mat 26:28); (Co1 11:25); (Heb 9:11); (Heb 9:12); (Heb 9:18-23).
(7) and secures the perpetuity, future conversion, and blessing of Israel. (Jer 31:31-40).
See also "Kingdom (Old Testament)," and (Sa2 7:8-17).
The New Covenant is the eighth, thus speaking of resurrection and of eternal completeness.
I. The Eight Covenants, Summary:
(1) The Edenic Covenant
(See Scofield) - (Gen 1:26)
conditioned the life of man in innocency.
(2) The Adamic Covenant
(See Scofield) - (Gen 3:14)
conditions the life of fallen man and gives promise of a Redeemer.
(3) The Noahic Covenant
(See Scofield) - (Gen 9:1)
establishes the principle of human government.
(4) The Abrahamic Covenant
(See Scofield) - (Gen 15:18)
founds the nation of Israel, and confirms, with specific additions, the Adamic promise of redemption.
(5) The Mosaic Covenant
(See Scofield) - (Exo 19:25)
condemns all men, "for that all have sinned."
(6) The Palestinian Covenant
(See Scofield) - (Deu 30:3)
secures the final restoration and conversion of Israel.
(7) The Davidic Covenant
(See Scofield) - (Sa2 7:16)
establishes the perpetuity of the Davidic family (fulfilled in Christ), (Mat 1:1); (Luk 1:31-33); (Rom 1:3) and of the Davidic kingdom, over Israel, and over the whole earth; to be fulfilled in and by Christ. (Sa2 7:8-17); (Zac 12:8); (Luk 1:31-33); (Act 15:14-17); (Co1 15:24).
(8) The New Covenant rests upon the sacrifice of Christ, and secures the eternal blessedness, under the Abrahamic Covenant (Gal 3:13-29) of all who believe. It is absolutely unconditional, and, since no responsibility is by it committed to man, it is final and irreversible.
II. The relation of Christ to the eight covenants is as follows:
(1) To the Edenic Covenant, Christ, as the "second Man," the "last Adam" (Co1 15:45-47) takes the place over all things which the first Adam lost. (Col 2:10); (Heb 2:7-8).
(2) He is the "Seed of the woman" of the Adamic Covenant (Gen 3:15); (Joh 12:31); (Jo1 3:8); (Gal 4:4); (Rev 20:10) and fulfilled its conditions of toil (Mar 6:3) and obedience.
(3) As the greatest son of Shem, in Him was fulfilled supremely the promise to Shem in the Noahic Covenant.
(See Scofield) - (Gen 9:1); (Col 2:9).
(4) He is the "Seed to whom the promises were made" in the Abrahamic Covenant; the son of Abraham obedient unto death. (Gen 22:18); (Gal 3:16); (Phi 2:8).
(5) He lived sinlessly under the Mosaic Covenant and bore for us its curse. (Gal 3:10-13).
(6) He lived obediently as a Jew in the land under the Palestinian Covenant, and will yet perform it gracious promises. (Deu 28:1-30); (Deu 28:9).
(7) He is the "Seed," "Heir," and "King" under the Davidic Covenant. (Mat 1:1); (Luk 1:31-33).
(8) His sacrifice is the foundation of the New Covenant. (Mat 26:28); (Co1 11:25).
Jehovah. (Jer 31:33).
Jehovah. (Jer 31:34).
(See Scofield) - (Rom 3:25).
(See Scofield) - (Rom 3:23).