The Scofield Bible Commentary, by Cyrus Ingerson Scofield, , at sacred-texts.com
The eighth chapter gives details concerning the second and third world-kingdoms: the silver and brass kingdoms of Daniel 2, the bear and leopard kingdoms of Daniel 7, namely, the Medo-Persian and Macedonian kingdoms of history. At the time of this vision (Dan 8:1) the first monarchy was nearing its end. Belshazzar was the last king of that monarchy.
About B.C. 530.
(See Scofield) - (Dan 8:20).
The "little horn" here is a prophecy fulfilled in Antiochus Epiphanes, B.C. 175, who profaned the temple and terribly persecuted the Jews. He is not to be confounded with the "little horn" of Daniel 7, who is yet to come, and who will dominate the earth during the great tribulation.
(See Scofield) - (Dan 7:8)
concerning "The Beast".
(See Scofield) - (Rev 19:20)
and "The great tribulation," (Psa 2:5).
(See Scofield) - (Rev 7:14).
But Antiochus is a remarkable type of the Beast, the terrible "little horn" of the last days. Verses 24-25 (Dan 8:24-25) go beyond Antiochus and evidently refer to the "little horn" of Daniel 7. Both Antiochus and the Beast, but the Beast pre-eminently, are in view in verses 24-25 (Dan 8:24-25). That the "little horn" of Daniel 7 cannot be the little horn of (Dan 8:9-13); (Dan 8:23) is evident. The former comes up among the ten horns into which the fourth empire (Roman) is to be divided; the little horn of Daniel 8 comes out of one of the four kingdoms into which the third (Grecian) empire was divided (Dan 8:23), and in "the latter time" of the four kingdoms (Dan 8:22); (Dan 8:23). This was historically true of Antiochus Epiphanes. They are alike in hatred of the Jews and of God, and in profaning the temple.
Compare (Dan 7:25) (the Beast) with (Dan 8:10-12) (Antiochus):
one of them
Anticohus Epiphanes came out of Syria, one of the "four notable" kingdoms into which Alexander's empire was divided.
And it waxed great
This passage (Dan 8:10-14) is confessedly the most difficult in prophecy, a difficulty increased by the present state of the text. Historically this was fulfilled in and by Antiochus Epiphanes, but in a more intense and final sense Antiochus but adumbrates the awful blasphemy of the "little horn" of; (Dan 7:8); (Dan 7:24); (Dan 7:25); (Dan 9:27); (Dan 11:36-45); (Dan 12:11). In Daniel (Dan 8:10-14) the actions of both "little horns" blend.
Compare (Dan 9:27) where the Beast comes into view:
Seven times in Daniel the "desolation" is spoken of:
(1) Of the sanctuary, (Dan 8:13) fulfilled by Antiochus Epiphanes, B.C. 175-170.
(2) Of the sanctuary, (Dan 9:17) the condition in Daniel's time, when the Jews were in exile and the sanctuary desolate.
(3) Generally, of the land, (Dan 9:18) also referring to Daniel's time.
(4) Of the sanctuary, (Dan 9:26) fulfilled A.D. 70, in the destruction of city and temple after the cutting off of Messiah. (Luk 21:20).
(5, 6, 7) Of the sanctuary, by the Beast, (Dan 9:27); (Dan 11:31); (Dan 12:11).
Compare (Mat 24:15); (Mar 13:14); (Th2 2:3); (Th2 2:8-12); (Rev 13:14); (Rev 13:15).
Or, holy one, idem. (Dan 4:13); (Dan 4:17).
The theophanies. (Dan 8:15); (Dan 10:6); (Dan 10:10); (Dan 10:18); (Gen 12:7); (Rev 1:9).
Two "ends" are in view here:
(1) historically, the end of the third, or Grecian empire of Alexander out of one of the divisions of which the little horn of verse 9 (Dan 8:9) (Antiochus) arose;
(2) prophetically, the end of the times of the Gentiles (Luk 21:24); (Rev 16:14) when the "little horn" of (Dan 7:8); (Dan 7:24-26) the Beast, will arise -- Daniel's final time of the end.
(See Scofield) - (Dan 12:4).
Verses (Dan 8:3); (Dan 8:4).
The "higher" horn which "came up last" is Cyrus, the other "Darius the Mede."
That is, Alexander the Great.
The four empires into which Alexander's empire was divided about B.C. 300; Greece, Asia Minor, including Syria, Egypt, the East.
king of fierce countenance
That is, Antiochus Epiphanes who arose out of Syria, one of the "four kingdoms," B.C. 170.