Biblical Commentary on the Old Testament, by Carl Friedrich Keil and Franz Delitzsh, [1857-78], at sacred-texts.com
Two Elohimic Fragments Brought Together
The אודך in Psa 108:4 and the whole contents of this Psalm is the echo to the הודוּ of the preceding Psalm. It is inscribed a Psalm-song by David, but only because it is compiled out of ancient Davidic materials. The fact of the absence of the למנצח makes it natural to suppose that it is of later origin. Two Davidic Psalm-pieces in the Elohimic style are here, with trifling variations, just put together, not soldered together, and taken out of their original historical connection.
That a poet like David would thus compile a third out of two of his own songs (Hengstenberg) is not conceivable.
This first half is taken from Ps. 57:8-12. The repetition of confident is my heart in Psa 57:1-11 is here omitted; and in place of it the "my glory" of the exclamation, awake my glory, is taken up to "I will sing and will harp" as a more minute definition of the subject (vid., on Psa 3:5): He will do it, yea,his soul with all its godlike powers shall do it. Jahve in Psa 108:4 is transformed out of the Adonaj; and Waw copul. is inserted both before Psa 108:4 and Psa 108:6, contrary to Psa 57:1-11. מעל, Psa 108:5 (as in Est 3:1), would be a pleasing change for עד if Psa 108:5 followed Psa 108:5 and the definition of magnitude did not retrograde instead of heightening. Moreover Psa 36:6; Jer 51:9 (cf. על in Psa 113:4; Psa 148:13) favour עד in opposition to מעל.
Ps. 60:7-14 forms this second half. The clause expressing the purpose with למען, as in its original, has the following הושׁיעה for its principal clause upon which it depends. Instead of ועננוּ, which one might have expected, the expression used here is וענני without any interchange of the mode of writing and of reading it; many printed copies have ועננו here also; Baer, following Norzi, correctly has וענני. Instead of ולי...לי, Psa 60:9, we here read לי...לי, which is less soaring. And instead of Cry aloud concerning me, O Philistia do I shout for joy (the triumphant cry of the victor); in accordance with which Hupfeld wishes to take התרועעי in the former as infinitive: "over (עלי instead of עלי) Philistia is my shouting for joy" (התרועעי instead of התרועעי, since the infinitive does not admit of this pausal form of the imperative). For עיר מצור we have here the more usual form of expression עיר מבצר. Psa 108:12 is weakened by the omission of the אתּה (הלא).