A Commentary, Critical, Practical, and Explanatory on the Old and New Testaments, by Robert Jamieson, A.R. Fausset and David Brown  at sacred-texts.com
psa 68:1This is a Psalm-song (see on Psa 30:1, title), perhaps suggested by David's victories, which secured his throne and gave rest to the nation. In general terms, the judgment of God on the wicked, and the equity and goodness of His government to the pious, are celebrated. The sentiment is illustrated by examples of God's dealings, cited from the Jewish history and related in highly poetical terms. Hence the writer intimates an expectation of equal and even greater triumphs and summons all nations to unite in praises of the God of Israel. The Psalm is evidently typical of the relation which God, in the person of His Son, sustains to the Church (compare Psa 68:18). (Psa. 68:1-35)
Compare Num 10:35; Psa 1:4; Psa 22:14, on the figures here used.
before him--as in Psa 68:2, from His presence, as dreaded; but in Psa 68:3, in His presence, as under His protection (Psa 61:7).
psa 68:3the righteous--all truly pious, whether of Israel or not.
psa 68:4extol him . . . heavens--literally, "cast up for Him who rideth in the deserts," or "wilderness" (compare Psa 68:7), alluding to the poetical representation of His leading His people in the wilderness as a conqueror, before whom a way is to be prepared, or "cast up" (compare Isa 40:3; Isa 62:10).
by his name JAH--or, "Jehovah," of which it is a contraction (Exo 15:3; Isa 12:2) (Hebrew).
name--or, "perfections" (Psa 9:10; Psa 20:1), which--
psa 68:5are illustrated by the protection to the helpless, vindication of the innocent, and punishment of rebels, ascribed to Him.
psa 68:6setteth the solitary in families--literally, "settleth the lonely" (as wanderers) "at home." Though a general truth, there is perhaps allusion to the wandering and settlement of the Israelites.
rebellious dwell in a dry land--removed from all the comforts of home.
psa 68:7(Compare Exo 19:16-18).
thou wentest--in the pillar of fire.
thou didst march--literally, "in Thy tread," Thy majestic movement.
psa 68:8even Sinai itself--literally, "that Sinai," as in Jdg 5:5.
psa 68:9a plentiful rain--a rain of gifts, as manna and quails.
psa 68:10Thy congregation--literally, "troop," as in Sa2 23:11, Sa2 23:13 --the military aspect of the people being prominent, according to the figures of the context.
therein--that is, in the land of promise.
the poor--Thy humble people (Psa 68:9; compare Psa 10:17; Psa 12:5).
psa 68:11gave the word--that is, of triumph.
company--or, choir of females, celebrating victory (Exo 15:20).
psa 68:12Kings of armies--that is, with their armies.
she that . . . at home--Mostly women so remained, and the ease of victory appears in that such, without danger, quietly enjoyed the spoils.
psa 68:13Some translate this, "When ye shall lie between the borders, ye shall," &c., comparing the peaceful rest in the borders or limits of the promised land to the proverbial beauty of a gentle dove. Others understand by the word rendered "pots," the smoked sides of caves, in which the Israelites took refuge from enemies in the times of the judges; or, taking the whole figuratively, the rows of stones on which cooking vessels were hung; and thus that a contrast is drawn between their former low and afflicted state and their succeeding prosperity. In either case, a state of quiet and peace is described by a beautiful figure.
psa 68:14Their enemies dispersed, the contrast of their prosperity with their former distress is represented by that of the snow with the dark and somber shades of Salmon.
psa 68:15Mountains are often symbols of nations (Psa 46:2; Psa 65:6). That of Bashan, northeast of Palestine, denotes a heathen nation, which is described as a "hill of God," or a great hill. Such are represented as envious of the hill (Zion) on which God resides;
psa 68:17and, to the assertion of God's purpose to make it His dwelling, is added evidence of His protecting care. He is described as in the midst of His heavenly armies--
thousands of angels--literally, "thousands of repetitions," or, "thousands of thousands"--that is, of chariots. The word "angels" was perhaps introduced in our version, from Deu 33:2, and Gal 3:19. They are, of course, implied as conductors of the chariots.
as . . . Sinai, in the holy place--that is, He has appeared in Zion as once in Sinai.
psa 68:18From the scene of conquest He ascends to His throne, leading--
captivity captive--or, "many captives captive" (Jdg 5:12).
received gifts for men--accepting their homage, even when forced, as that of rebels.
that the Lord God might dwell--or literally, "to dwell, O Lord God" (compare Psa 68:16) --that is, to make this hill, His people or Church, His dwelling. This Psalm typifies the conquests of the Church under her divine leader, Christ. He, indeed, "who was with the Church in the wilderness" (Act 7:38) is the Lord, described in this ideal ascension. Hence Paul (Eph 4:8) applies this language to describe His real ascension, when, having conquered sin, death, and hell, the Lord of glory triumphantly entered heaven, attended by throngs of adoring angels, to sit on the throne and wield the scepter of an eternal dominion. The phrase "received gifts for (or literally, among) men" is by Paul, "gave gifts to men." Both describe the acts of a conqueror, who receives and distributes spoils. The Psalmist uses "receiving" as evincing the success, Paul "gave" as the act, of the conqueror, who, having subdued his enemies, proceeds to reward his friends. The special application of the passage by Paul was in proof of Christ's exaltation. What the Old Testament represents of His descending and ascending corresponds with His history. He who descended is the same who has ascended. As then ascension was an element of His triumph, so is it now; and He, who, in His humiliation, must be recognized as our vicarious sacrifice and the High Priest of our profession, must also be adored as Head of His Church and author of all her spiritual benefits.
psa 68:19God daily and fully supplies us. The issues or escapes from death are under His control, who is the God that saves us, and destroys His and our enemies.
psa 68:21wound the head--or, "violently destroy" (Num 24:8; Psa 110:6).
goeth on still in . . . trespasses--perseveringly impenitent.
psa 68:22Former examples of God's deliverance are generalized: as He has done, so He will do.
from Bashan--the farthest region; and--
depths of the sea--the severest afflictions. Out of all, God will bring them. The figures of Psa 68:23 denote the completeness of the conquest, not implying any savage cruelty (compare Kg2 9:36; Isa 63:1-6; Jer 15:3).
psa 68:24The triumphal procession, after the deliverance, is depicted.
They have seen--impersonally, "There have been seen."
the goings of my God--as leading the procession; the ark, the symbol of His presence, being in front. The various bands of music (Psa 68:25) follow, and all who are--
psa 68:26from--or literally, "of"
the fountain of Israel--that is, lineal descendants of Jacob, are invited to unite in the doxology. Then by one of the nearest tribes, one of the most eminent, and two of the most remote, are represented the whole nation of Israel, passing forward (Num. 7:1-89).
psa 68:28Thanks for the past, and confident prayer for the future victories of Zion are mingled in a song of praise.
psa 68:29thy temple--literally, "over"
Jerusalem--His palace or residence (Psa 5:7) symbolized His protecting presence among His people, and hence is the object of homage on the part of others.
psa 68:30The strongest nations are represented by the strongest beasts (compare Margin).
psa 68:31Princes--or, literally, "fat ones," the most eminent from the most wealthy, and the most distant nation, represent the universal subjection.
stretch out her hands--or, "make to run her hands," denoting haste.
psa 68:32To Him who is presented as riding in triumph through His ancient heavens and proclaiming His presence--to Him who, in nature, and still more in the wonders of His spiritual government, out of His holy place (Psa 43:3), is terrible, who rules His Church, and, by His Church, rules the world in righteousness--let all nations and kingdoms give honor and power and dominion evermore.