A Commentary, Critical, Practical, and Explanatory on the Old and New Testaments, by Robert Jamieson, A.R. Fausset and David Brown  at sacred-texts.com
job 17:1JOB'S ANSWER CONTINUED. (Job 17:1-16)
breath . . . corrupt--result of elephantiasis. But UMBREIT, "my strength (spirit) is spent."
extinct--Life is compared to an expiring light. "The light of my day is extinguished."
graves--plural, to heighten the force.
job 17:2UMBREIT, more emphatically, "had I only not to endure mockery, in the midst of their contentions I (mine eye) would remain quiet."
eye continue--Hebrew, "tarry all night"; a figure taken from sleep at night, to express undisturbed rest; opposed to (Job 16:20), when the eye of Job is represented as pouring out tears to God without rest.
job 17:3Lay down now--namely, a pledge or security; that is, be my surety; do Thou attest my innocence, since my friends only mock me (Job 17:2). Both litigating parties had to lay down a sum as security before the trial.
put me in a surety--Provide a surety for me (in the trial) with Thee. A presage of the "surety" (Heb 7:22), or "one Mediator between God and man" (see on Job 16:21).
strike hands--"who else (save God Himself) could strike hands with me?" that is, be my security (Psa 119:122). The Hebrew strikes the hand of him for whom he goes security (Pro 6:1).
job 17:4their heart--The intellect of his friends.
shalt . . . exalt--Rather imperative, "exalt them not"; allow them not to conquer [UMBREIT], (Isa 6:9-10).
job 17:5The Hebrew for "flattery" is "smoothness"; then it came to mean a prey divided by lot, because a smooth stone was used in casting the lots (Deu 18:8), "a portion" (Gen 14:24). Therefore translate, "He that delivers up his friend as a prey (which the conduct of my friends implies that they would do), even the eyes," &c. [NOYES] (Job 11:20). Job says this as to the sinner's children, retorting upon their reproach as to the cutting off of his (Job 5:4; Job 15:30). This accords with the Old Testament dispensation of legal retribution (Exo 20:5).
job 17:6He--God. The poet reverentially suppresses the name of God when speaking of calamities inflicted.
by-word-- (Deu 28:37; Psa 69:11). My awful punishment makes my name execrated everywhere, as if I must have been superlatively bad to have earned it.
aforetime . . . tabret--as David was honored (Sa1 18:6). Rather from a different Hebrew root, "I am treated to my face as an object of disgust," literally, "an object to be spit upon in the face" (Num 12:14). So Raca means (Mat 5:22) [UMBREIT].
job 17:7(Psa 6:7; Psa 31:9; Deu 34:7).
members--literally, "figures"; all the individual members being peculiar forms of the body; opposed to "shadow," which looks like a figure without solidity.
job 17:8astonied--at my unmerited sufferings.
against the hypocrite--The upright shall feel their sense of justice wounded ("will be indignant") because of the prosperity of the wicked. By "hypocrite" or "ungodly," he perhaps glances at his false friends.
job 17:9The strength of religious principle is heightened by misfortune. The pious shall take fresh courage to persevere from the example of suffering Job. The image is from a warrior acquiring new courage in action (Isa 40:30-31; Phi 1:14).
job 17:10return--If you have anything to advance really wise, though I doubt it, recommence your speech. For as yet I cannot find one wise man among you all.
job 17:11Only do not vainly speak of the restoration of health to me; for "my days are past."
broken off--as the threads of the web cut off from the loom (Isa 38:12).
thoughts--literally, "possessions," that is, all the feelings and fair hopes which my heart once nourished. These belong to the heart, as "purposes" to the understanding; the two together here describe the entire inner man.
job 17:12They--namely, "my friends."
change the night into day--that is, would try to persuade me of the change of my misery into joy, which is impossible [UMBREIT] (Job 11:17); (but) the light of prosperity (could it be enjoyed) would be short because of the darkness of adversity. Or better for "short," the Hebrew "near"; "and the light of new prosperity should be near in the face of (before) the darkness of death"; that is, they would persuade me that light is near, even though darkness approaches.
job 17:13Rather, "if I wait for this grave (Sheol, or the unseen world) as my house, and make my bed in the darkness (Job 17:14), and say to corruption," rather, "to the pit" or "grave," &c. (Job 17:15). Where then is my hope? [UMBREIT]. The apodosis is at Job 17:15.
job 17:14Thou art my father, &c.--expressing most intimate connection (Pro 7:4). His diseased state made him closely akin to the grave and worm.
job 17:15Who shall see it fulfilled? namely, the "hope" (Job 11:18) which they held out to him of restoration.
job 17:16They--namely, my hopes shall be buried with me.
bars-- (Isa 38:10). Rather, the wastes or solitudes of the pit (sheol, the unseen world).
rest together--the rest of me and my hope is in, &c. Both expire together. The word "rest" implies that man's ceaseless hopes only rob him of rest.