A Commentary, Critical, Practical, and Explanatory on the Old and New Testaments, by Robert Jamieson, A.R. Fausset and David Brown  at sacred-texts.com
jer 52:3WRITTEN BY SOME OTHER THAN JEREMIAH (PROBABLY EZRA) AS AN HISTORICAL SUPPLEMENT TO THE PREVIOUS PROPHECIES (Jer. 52:1-34)
through . . . anger of . . . Lord . . . Zedekiah rebelled--His "anger" against Jerusalem, determining Him to "cast out" His people "from His presence" heretofore manifested there, led Him to permit Zedekiah to rebel (Kg2 23:26-27; compare Exo 9:12; Exo 10:1; Rom 9:18). That rebellion, being in violation of his oath "by God," was sure to bring down God's vengeance (Ch2 36:13; Eze 17:15-16, Eze 17:18).
jer 52:4forts--rather, towers of wood [KIMCHI], for watching the movements of the besieged from the height and annoying them with missiles.
jer 52:7(See on Jer 39:4).
jer 52:9gave judgment upon him--as guilty of rebellion and perjury (Jer 52:3; compare Eze 23:24).
jer 52:11Eze 12:13 : "I will bring him to Babylon . . . yet shall he not see it."
prison--literally, "the house of visitations," or "punishments," that is, where there was penal work enforced on the prisoners, such as grinding. Hence the Septuagint renders it "the house of the mill." So Samson, after his eyes were put out, "ground" in the Philistine prison-house (Jdg 16:21).
jer 52:12tenth day--But in Kg2 25:8, it is said "the seventh day." Nebuzara-dan started from Riblah on the "seventh" day and arrived in Jerusalem on the "tenth" day. Seeming discrepancies, when cleared up, confirm the genuineness of Scripture; for they show there was no collusion between the writers; as in all God's works there is latent harmony under outward varieties.
jer 52:13all the houses . . . and all the houses of the great--the "and" defines what houses especially are meant, namely, the houses of the great men.
jer 52:15poor of . . . people--added to the account in Kg2 25:11. "The poor of the people" are of the city, as distinguished from "the poor of the land," that is, of the country.
jer 52:17brake--that they might be more portable. Fulfilling the prophecy (Jer 27:19). See Kg1 7:15, Kg1 7:23, Kg1 7:27, Kg1 7:50. Nothing is so particularly related here as the carrying away of the articles in the temple. The remembrance of their beauty and preciousness heightens the bitterness of their loss and the evil of sin which caused it.
brass . . . brazen--rather "copper . . . of copper."
jer 52:18(Exo 27:3).
jer 52:19of gold in gold--implying that the articles were of solid gold and silver respectively, not of a different metal inside, or alloyed [GROTIUS]. Whole: not breaking them as was done to the "brass" (Jer 52:17).
jer 52:20bulls . . . under the bases--But the bulls were not "under the bases," but under the sea (Kg1 7:25, Kg1 7:27, Kg1 7:38); the ten bases were not under the sea, but under the ten lavers. In English Version, "bases," therefore, must mean the lower parts of the sea under which the bulls were. Rather, translate, "the bulls were in the place of (that is, 'by way of'; so the Hebrew, Sa1 14:9), bases," or supports to the sea [BUXTORF]. So the Septuagint. Kg2 25:16 omits the "bulls," and has "and the bases"; so GROTIUS here reads "the bulls (which were) under (the sea) and the bases."
jer 52:21eighteen cubits--but in Ch2 3:15, it is "thirty-five cubits." The discrepancy is thus removed. Each pillar was eighteen common cubits. The two together, deducting the base, were thirty-five, as stated in Ch2 3:15 [GROTIUS]. Other ways (for example, by reference to the difference between the common and the sacred cubit) are proposed: though we are not able positively to decide now which is the true way, at least those proposed do show that the discrepancies are not irreconcilable.
jer 52:22five cubits--so Kg1 7:16. But Kg2 25:17 has "three cubits." There were two parts in the chapiter: the one lower and plain, of two cubits; the other, higher and curiously carved, of three cubits. The former is omitted in Kg2 25:17, as belonging to the shaft of the pillar; the latter alone is there mentioned. Here the whole chapiter of five cubits is referred to.
jer 52:23on a side--literally, (on the side) towards the air or wind, that is, the outside of the capitals of the pillars conspicuous to the eye, opposed to the four remaining pomegranates which were not seen from the outside. The pomegranates here are ninety-six; but in Kg1 7:20 they are two hundred on each chapiter, and four hundred on the two (Ch2 4:13). It seems there were two rows of them, one above the other, and in each row a hundred. They are here said to be ninety-six, but immediately following one hundred, and so in Kg1 7:20. Four seem to have been unseen to one looking from one point; and the ninety-six are only those that could be seen [VATABLUS]; or, the four omitted here are those separating the four sides, one pomegranate at each point of separation (or at the four corners) between the four sides [GROTIUS].
jer 52:24Seraiah--different from the Seraiah (Jer 51:59), son of Neriah; probably son of Azariah (Ch1 6:14).
Zephaniah--son of Maaseiah (see on Jer 21:1; Jer 29:25).
jer 52:25seven men--but in Kg2 25:19 it is "five." Perhaps two were less illustrious persons and are therefore omitted.
principal scribe of the host-- (Isa 33:18). His office was to preside over the levy and enroll recruits. RAWLINSON observes that the Assyrian records are free from the exaggerated expressions found in the Egyptian. A minute account was taken of the spoil. Two "scribes of the host" are seen in every bas-relief, writing down the various objects brought to them: the heads of the slain, the prisoners, cattle, sheep, &c.
jer 52:28seventh year--in Kg2 24:12, Kg2 24:14, Kg2 24:16, it is said "the eighth year" of Nebuchadnezzar. No doubt it was in part about the end of the seventh year, in part about the beginning of the eighth. Also in 2Ki. 24:1-20, ten thousand (Jer 52:14), and seven thousand men of might, and a thousand craftsmen (Jer 52:16), are said to have been carried away, But here three thousand twenty-three. Probably the latter three thousand twenty-three were of the tribe of Judah, the remaining seven thousand out of the ten thousand were of the other tribes, out of which many Israelites still had been left in the land. The a thousand "craftsmen" were exclusive of the ten thousand, as appears, by comparing Kg2 24:14 with Jer 52:16. Probably the three thousand twenty-three of Judah were first removed in the end of "the seventh year"; the seven thousand and a thousand craftsmen in the "eighth year." This was at the first captivity under Jehoiachin.
jer 52:29eighteenth year--when Jerusalem was taken. But in Jer 52:15, and Kg2 25:8, "the nineteenth year." Probably it was at the end of the eighteenth and the beginning of the nineteenth [LYRA].
eight hundred and thirty and two--The most illustrious persons are meant, who no doubt were carried away first, at the end of the eighteenth year.
jer 52:30Not recorded in Kings or Chronicles. Probably it took place during the commotions that followed the death of Gedaliah (Jer 41:18; Kg2 25:26).
four thousand and six hundred--The exact sum-total of the numbers specified here, namely, three thousand twenty-three, eight hundred thirty-two, seven hundred forty-five, not including the general multitude and the women and children (Jer 52:15; Jer 39:9; Kg2 25:11).
jer 52:31(Kg2 25:27-30).
five and twentieth day--but in Kg2 25:27, it is "the twenty-seventh day." Probably on the twenty-fifth the decree for his elevation was given, and the preparations for it made by releasing him from prison; and on the twenty-seventh day it was carried into effect.
Evil-merodach--son and successor of Nebuchadnezzar [LYRA]; and the Hebrew writers say that during Nebuchadnezzar's exclusion from men among beasts, Evil-merodach administered the government. When Nebuchadnezzar at the end of seven years was restored, hearing of his son's misconduct and that he had exulted in his father's calamity, he threw him into prison, where the latter met Jeconiah and contracted a friendship with him, whence arose the favor which subsequently he showed him. God, in his elevation, rewarded his having surrendered to Nebuchadnezzar (compare Jer 38:17 with Kg2 24:12).
lifted up . . . head--(Compare Gen 40:13, Gen 40:20; Psa 3:3; Psa 27:6).
jer 52:32set his throne above--a mark of respect.
the kings--The Hebrew text reads (the other) kings." "The kings" is a Masoretic correction.
jer 52:33changed . . . garments--gave him garments suitable to a king.
did . . . eat bread before him-- (Sa2 9:13).
jer 52:34every day a portion--rather, "its portion," (compare Kg1 8:59, Margin).