A Commentary, Critical, Practical, and Explanatory on the Old and New Testaments, by Robert Jamieson, A.R. Fausset and David Brown  at sacred-texts.com
jer 4:1CONTINUATION OF ADDRESS TO THE TEN TRIBES OF ISRAEL. (Jer 4:1-2). THE PROPHET TURNS AGAIN TO JUDAH, TO WHOM HE HAD ORIGINALLY BEEN SENT (Jer. 4:3-31). (Jer. 4:1-31)
return . . . return--play on words. "If thou wouldest return to thy land (thou must first), return (by conversion and repentance) to Me."
not remove--no longer be an unsettled wanderer in a strange land. So Cain (Gen 4:12, Gen 4:14).
jer 4:2And thou--rather, "And if (carried on from Jer 4:1) thou shalt swear, 'Jehovah liveth,' in truth, &c.", that is, if thou shalt worship Him (for we swear by the God whom we worship; compare Deu 6:13; Deu 10:20; Isa 19:18; Amo 8:14) in sincerity, &c.
and the nations--Rather, this is apodosis to the "if"; then shall the nations bless themselves in (by) Him" (Isa 65:16). The conversion of the nations will be the consequence of Israel's conversion (Psa 102:13, Psa 102:15; Rom 11:12, Rom 11:15).
jer 4:3Transition to Judah. Supply mentally. All which (the foregoing declaration as to Israel) applies to Judah.
and Jerusalem--that is, and especially the men of Jerusalem, as being the most prominent in Judea.
Break . . . fallow ground--that is, Repent of your idolatry, and so be prepared to serve the Lord in truth (Hos 10:12; Mat 13:7). The unhumbled heart is like ground which may be improved, being let out to us for that purpose, but which is as yet fallow, overgrown with weeds, its natural product.
jer 4:4Remove your natural corruption of heart (Deu 10:16; Deu 30:6; Rom 2:29; Col 2:11).
jer 4:5cry, gather together--rather, "cry fully" that is, loudly. The Jews are warned to take measures against the impending Chaldean invasion (compare Jer 8:14).
jer 4:6Zion--The standard toward Zion intimated that the people of the surrounding country were to fly to it, as being the strongest of their fortresses.
jer 4:7lion--Nebuchadnezzar and the Chaldeans (Jer 2:15; Jer 5:6; Dan 7:14).
his thicket--lair; Babylon.
destroyer of the Gentiles--rather, "the nations" (Jer 25:9).
jer 4:8Nothing is left to the Jews but to bewail their desperate condition.
anger . . . not turned back-- (Isa 9:12, Isa 9:17, Isa 9:21).
jer 4:9heart--The wisdom of the most leading men will be utterly at a loss to devise means of relief.
jer 4:10thou hast . . . deceived--God, having even the false prophets in His hands, is here said to do that which for inscrutable purposes He permits them to do (Exo 9:12; Th2 2:11; compare Jer 8:15; which passage shows that the dupes of error were self-prepared for it, and that God's predestination did not destroy their moral freedom as voluntary agents). The false prophets foretold "peace," and the Jews believed them; God overruled this to His purposes (Jer 5:12; Jer 14:13; Eze 14:9).
soul--rather, "reacheth to the life."
jer 4:11dry wind--the simoom, terrific and destructive, blowing from the southeast across the sandy deserts east of Palestine. Image of the invading Babylonian army (Hos 13:15). Babylon in its turn shall be visited by a similar "destroying wind" (Jer 51:1).
of . . . high places--that is, that sweeps over the high places.
daughter--that is, the children of my people.
not to fan--a very different wind from those ordinary winds employed for fanning the grain in the open air.
jer 4:12full . . . from those places--rather, "a wind fuller (that is, more impetuous) than those winds" (which fan the corn) (Jer 4:11) [ROSENMULLER].
unto me--"for Me," as My instrument for executing My purpose.
sentence--judgments against them (Jer 1:16).
jer 4:13clouds--continuing the metaphor in Jer 4:11-12. Clouds of sand and dust accompany the simoom, and after rapid gyrations ascend like a pillar.
eagles-- (Deu 28:49; Hab 1:8).
Woe unto us--The people are graphically presented before us, without it being formally so stated, bursting out in these exclamations.
jer 4:14Only one means of deliverance is left to the Jews--a thorough repentance.
vain thoughts--namely, projects for deliverance, such as enlisting the Egyptians on their side. GESENIUS translates, "How long wilt thou harbor vain thoughts?"
jer 4:15For . . . from Dan--The connection is: There is danger in delay; for the voice of a messenger announces the approach of the Chaldean enemy from Dan, the northern frontier of Palestine (Jer 8:16; compare Jer 4:6; Jer 1:14).
Mount Ephraim--which borders closely on Judah; so that the foe is coming nearer and nearer. Dan and Beth-el in Ephraim were the two places where Jeroboam set up the idolatrous calves (Kg1 12:29); just retribution.
jer 4:16The neighboring foreign "nations" are summoned to witness Jehovah's judgments on His rebel people (Jer 6:18-19).
watchers--that is, besiegers (compare Sa2 11:16); observed or watched, that is, besieged.
their voice--the war shout.
jer 4:17keepers of a field--metaphor from those who watch a field, to frighten away the wild beasts.
jer 4:18(Jer 2:17, Jer 2:19; Psa 107:17).
this is thy wickedness--that is, the fruit of thy wickedness.
jer 4:19The prophet suddenly assumes the language of the Jewish state personified, lamenting its affliction (Jer 10:19-20; Jer 9:1, Jer 9:10; Isa 15:5; compare Luk 19:41).
at my very heart--Hebrew, "at the walls of my heart"; the muscles round the heart. There is a climax, the "bowels," the pericardium, the "heart" itself.
maketh . . . noise--moaneth [HENDERSON].
alarm--the battle shout.
jer 4:20Destruction . . . cried--Breach upon breach is announced (Psa 42:7; Eze 7:26). The war "trumpet" . . . the battle shout . . . the "destructions" . . . the havoc throughout "the whole land" . . . the spoiling of the shepherds "tents" (Jer 10:20; or, "tents" means cities, which should be overthrown as easily as tents [CALVIN]), form a gradation.
jer 4:21Judah in perplexity asks, How long is this state of things to continue?
jer 4:22Jehovah's reply; they cannot be otherwise than miserable, since they persevere in sin. The repetition of clauses gives greater force to the sentiment.
wise . . . evil . . . to do good . . . no knowledge--reversing the rule (Rom 16:19) "wise unto . . . good, simple concerning evil."
jer 4:23Graphic picture of the utter desolation about to visit Palestine. "I beheld, and lo!" four times solemnly repeated, heightens the awful effect of the scene (compare Isa 24:19; Isa 34:11).
without form and void--reduced to the primeval chaos (Gen 1:2).
jer 4:24mountains-- (Isa 5:25).
moved lightly--shook vehemently.
jer 4:25no man . . . birds--No vestige of the human, or of the feathered creation, is to be seen (Eze 38:20; Zep 1:3).
jer 4:26fruitful place--Hebrew, Carmel.
a wilderness--Hebrew, "the wilderness," in contrast to "the fruitful place"; the great desert, where Carmel was, there is now the desert of Arabia [MAURER].
cities--in contrast to the fruitful place or field.
jer 4:27full end--utter destruction: I will leave some hope of restoration (Jer 5:10, Jer 5:18; Jer 30:11; Jer 46:28; compare Lev 26:44).
jer 4:28For this--on account of the desolations just described (Isa 5:30; Hos 4:3).
not repent-- (Num 23:19).
jer 4:29whole city--Jerusalem: to it the inhabitants of the country had fled for refuge; but when it, too, is likely to fall, they flee out of it to hide in the "thickets." HENDERSON translates, "every city."
noise--The mere noise of the hostile horsemen shall put you to flight.
jer 4:30when thou art spoiled--rather, "thou, O destroyed one" [MAURER].
rentest . . . face with painting--Oriental women paint their eyes with stibium, or antimony, to make them look full and sparkling, the black margin causing the white of the eyes to appear the brighter by contrast (Kg2 9:30). He uses the term "distendest" in derision of their effort to make their eyes look large [MAURER]; or else, "rentest," that is, dost lacerate by puncturing the eyelid in order to make the antimony adhere [ROSENMULLER]. So the Jews use every artifice to secure the aid of Egypt against Babylon.
face--rather, thy eyes (Eze 23:40).
jer 4:31anguish--namely, occasioned by the attack of the enemy.
daughter of Zion--There is peculiar beauty in suppressing the name of the person in trouble, until that trouble had been fully described [HENDERSON].
bewaileth herself--rather, "draweth her breath short" [HORSLEY]; "panteth."
spreadeth . . . hands-- (Lam 1:17).