Commentary on the Bible, by Adam Clarke, , at sacred-texts.com
David smites the Philistines, and takes Gath, Ch1 18:1. Reduces the Moabites, Ch1 18:2. Vanquishes Hadarezer, king of Zobah, Ch1 18:3, Ch1 18:4. Overcomes the Syrians of Damascus, and takes several of their cities, Ch1 18:5-8. Tou, king of Hamath, congratulates him on his victory, and sends him vessels of silver, gold, and brass, Ch1 18:9, Ch1 18:10. Those and the different spoils he had taken from the conquered nations, he dedicates to God, Ch1 18:11. Abishai defeats the Edomites, Ch1 18:12, Ch1 18:13. David reigns over all Israel, Ch1 18:14. His officers, Ch1 18:15-17.
1 Chronicles 18:1
David - took Gath and her towns - See the comparison between this chapter and Sa2 8:1 (note), etc., in the notes on the latter.
1 Chronicles 18:2
Brought gifts - Were laid under tribute.
1 Chronicles 18:9
Tou king of Hamath - Called Toi in Sa2 8:9.
1 Chronicles 18:12
Abishai - slew of the Edomites - This victory is attributed to David, Sa2 8:13. He sent Abishai against them, and he defeated them: this is with great propriety attributed to David as commander-in-chief; qui facit per alterum, facit per se.
1 Chronicles 18:15
Joab - was over the host - General-in-chief.
Jehoshaphat - recorder - The king's remembrancer, or historiographer royal.
1 Chronicles 18:16
Zadok - and Abimelech - priests - Both high priests; one at Gibeon, and the other at Jerusalem, as we have seen Ch1 16:39.
Shavsha was scribe - Called Seraiah, Sa2 8:17.
1 Chronicles 18:17
Cherethites and the Pelethites - See the note on Sa2 8:18.
The Targum says, "Benaiah was over the great Sanhedrin and the small Sanhedrin, and consulted Urim and Thummim. And at his command the archers and slingers went to battle."
The sons of David - These were the highest in authority.