Notes on the Bible, by Albert Barnes, , at sacred-texts.com
1 Kings (1 Samuel) 2:1
The song of Hannah is a prophetic Psalm. It is poetry. and it is prophecy. It takes its place by the side of the songs of Miriam, Deborah, and the Virgin Mary, as well as those of Moses, David, Hezekiah, and other Psalmists and prophets whose inspired odes have been preserved in the Bible. The special feature which these songs have in common is, that springing from, and in their first conception relating to, incidents in the lives of the individuals who composed them, they branch out into magnificent descriptions of the Kingdom and glory of Christ, and the triumphs of the Church, of which those incidents were providentially designed to be the types. The perception of this is essential to the understanding of Hannah's song. Compare the marginal references throughout.
1 Kings (1 Samuel) 2:2
Any rock ... - The term rock as applied to God is first found in the song of Moses (see Deu 32:4 note), where the juxtaposition of rock and salvation in Sa1 2:15, "he lightly esteemed the rock of his salvation," seems to indicate that Hannah was acquainted with the song of Moses.
1 Kings (1 Samuel) 2:5
See an instance in Sa1 2:36. See, too, in Eze 13:19, another example of hire paid in bread.
Ceased - i. e. were at rest, did no work. The general sense is expressed by the translation of the Latin Version, "they were filled."
1 Kings (1 Samuel) 2:10
He shall give strength ... - This is a most remarkable passage, containing a clear and distinct prophecy of the Kingdom and glory of the Christ of God. (Compare Luk 1:69-70).
1 Kings (1 Samuel) 2:11
The word "minister" is used in three senses in Scripture:
(1) of the service or ministration of both priests and Levites rendered unto the Lord Exo 28:35, Exo 28:43 :
(2) of the ministrations of the Levites as rendered to the priests, to aid them in divine Service Num 3:6 :
(3) of any service or ministration, especially one rendered to a man of God, as that of Joshua to Moses Num 11:28.
The application of it to Samuel as ministering to the Lord before Eli the priest accords "most exactly" with Samuel's condition as a Levite.
1 Kings (1 Samuel) 2:12
Sons of Belial - See the marginal reference note. The phrase is very frequent in the books of Samuel. In the New Testament, Paul contrasts Christ and Belial, as if Belial were the name of an idol or the personification of evil Co2 6:15. This probably led to the use of the term "Belial" in the the King James Version, instead of expressing its meaning, which is "mischief, wickedness."
1 Kings (1 Samuel) 2:13
The Law of Moses defined exactly what was to be the priest's portion of every peace offering Lev 7:31-35, as it also gave express directions about the burning of the fat Lev 7:23-25, Lev 7:31. It was therefore a gross act of disobedience and lawlessness on the part of Hophni and Phinehas to take more than the Law gave them. Incidental evidence is afforded by this passage to the existence of the Levitical law at this time.
1 Kings (1 Samuel) 2:17
The offering of the Lord - Minchah, here in the general sense of "gift or offering" to God (compare Mal 1:10-11; Mal 3:3). In its restricted sense, it is used of the meat offerings, the unbloody sacrifices, and is then coupled with bloody sacrifices, sacrifices of slain beasts. (See Sa1 2:29.)
1 Kings (1 Samuel) 2:18
Girded with a linen ephod - This was the usual dress of the priests. It does not appear whether Levites wore an ephod properly. Possibly it was a mark of Samuel's special dedication to the Lord's service that he wore one. (See the marginal reference). The ephod was sometimes used as an idolatrous implement Jdg 8:27.
1 Kings (1 Samuel) 2:19
A little coat - The robe of the ephod was also one of the garments worn by the High Priest (see Exo 28:31 note). This pointed mention of the ephod and the robe as worn by the youthful Samuel, seems to point to an extraordinary and irregular priesthood to which he was called by God in an age when the provisions of the Levitical law were not yet in full operation, and in which there was no impropriety in the eyes of his contemporaries, seeing that nonconformity to the whole Law was the rule rather than the exception throughout the days of the Judges.
1 Kings (1 Samuel) 2:21
See the marginal references. The words "before the" Lord have special reference to his residence at the tabernacle.
1 Kings (1 Samuel) 2:22
Women that assembled - Or, "Served." See the marginal reference and note. Probably such service as consisted in doing certain work for the fabric of the tabernacle as women are accustomed to do, spinning, knitting, embroidering, mending, washing, and such like.
1 Kings (1 Samuel) 2:25
The sense seems to be, If one man sin against another, the judge shall amerce him in the due penalty, and then he shall be free; but if he sin against the Lord, who shall act the part of judge and arbiter for him? His guilt must remain to the great day of judgment.
Because the Lord would slay them - There is a sense in which whatever comes to pass is the accomplishment of God's sovereign will and pleasure, and all the previous steps, even when they involve moral causes, by which this will and pleasure are brought about, are in this sense also brought about by God. How this truth, which reason and revelation alike acknowledge, consists with man's free will on the one hand; or, when the evil deeds and punishment of a sinner are some of the previous steps, with God's infinite mercy and love on the other, is what cannot possibly be explained. We can only firmly believe both statements,
(1) that God hath no pleasure in the death of him that dieth, and that He willeth not the death of a sinner, but rather that he should be converted and live;
(2) that the sins and the punishments of sin are accomplishments of God's eternal purpose (compare the marginal references, and Isa 6:9-10; Mar 4:12; Rom 9:15). It may be explained by saying that in the case of Hophni and Phinehas God's will to kill them was founded upon His foreknowledge of their impenitence; while from another point of view, in which God's will is the fixed point, that impenitence may be viewed in its relation to that fixed point, and so dependent upon it, and a necessary step to it.
1 Kings (1 Samuel) 2:26
And the child Samuel ... - The account of our Lord's growth Luk 2:52 is very similar; "And Jesus increased in wisdom and stature, and in favor with God and man." The literal version of the passage before us is, "The child Samuel advanced and grew and was good (or acceptable), both with the Lord, and also with men."
1 Kings (1 Samuel) 2:27
A man of God - See Jdg 13:6 note. The sudden appearance of the only prophet of whom mention is made since Deborah, without name, or any notice of his country, is remarkable.
1 Kings (1 Samuel) 2:28
An ephod - The High Priest's ephod, in which was Urim and Thummim.
Did I give ... - The bountiful provision made by God for His priests is mentioned as the great aggravation of the covetousness of Eli's sons (compare Sa2 12:7-9).
1 Kings (1 Samuel) 2:29
Wherefore kick ye - See the marginal reference. The well-fed beast becomes unmanageable and refractory, and refuses the yoke, and bursts the bonds Jer 5:5. So the priests, instead of being grateful for the provision made for them, in their pampered pride became dissatisfied, wantonly broke the laws of God which regulated their share of the offerings, and gave themselves up to an unbridled indulgence of their passions and their covetousness.
Honourest thy sons above me - What restrained Eli from taking vigorous action to vindicate God's honor, was his unwillingness to lose for his sons the lucrative office of the priesthood. He was willing to rebuke them, he was grieved at their misdeeds, but he was not willing to give up the wealth and plenty which flowed into his house from the offerings of Israel.
1 Kings (1 Samuel) 2:30
Be it far from me - The phrase so rendered is a favorite one in the Books of Samuel, where it occurs ten or eleven times. It is variously rendered in the King James Version, "God forbid," and "Be it far from me, thee, etc." Literally, "Be it an abomination to me."
1 Kings (1 Samuel) 2:31
I will cut off thine arm ... - A strong phrase for breaking down the strength and power, of which the arm is the instrument in man (compare Zac 11:17). See Sa1 2:33.
1 Kings (1 Samuel) 2:32
The original text is rather obscure and difficult of construction, but the King James Version probably gives the sense of it. The margin gives another meaning.
In all the wealth ... - The allusion is particularly to Solomon's reign, when Zadok was made priest instead of Abiathar, Kg1 2:26-27. (See Kg1 4:20 ff) The enormous number of sacrifices then offered must have been a great source of wealth to the priests Kg1 8:63-66.
1 Kings (1 Samuel) 2:33
The meaning is explained by Sa1 2:36. Those who are not cut off in the flower of their youth shall be worse off than those who are, for they shall have to beg their bread. (Compare Jer 22:10.)
Thine eyes ... thine heart - For a similar personification of the tribe or family see Jdg 1:2-4.
1 Kings (1 Samuel) 2:35
Zadok is meant rather than Samuel. The High Priesthood continued in the direct descendants of Zadok as long as the monarchy lasted (see Ch1 6:8-15).
Mine anointed - in its first sense obviously means the kings of Israel and Judah Psa 89:20; Zac 4:14. But doubtless the use of the term MESSIAH (Χριστὸς Christos) here and in Sa1 2:10, is significant, and points to the Lord's Christ, in whom the royal and priestly offices are united (Zac 6:11-15 : see the marginal references). In this connection the substitution of the priesthood after the order of Melchisedec for the Levitical may be foreshadowed under Sa1 2:35 (see Heb. 7).
1 Kings (1 Samuel) 2:36
A piece - The word is only found here; but is thought to be connected in etymology and in meaning with the "Gerah," the smallest Hebrew coin, being the twentieth part of the shekel. The smallness of the sum asked for shows the poverty of the asker.