Notes on the Bible, by Albert Barnes, , at sacred-texts.com
Special occasions are mentioned on which sin-offerings are to be made with a particular confession of the offence for which atonement is sought Lev 5:5.
Swearing - Adjuration. The case appears to be that of one who has been put upon his oath as a witness by a magistrate, and fails to utter all he has seen and heard (compare the marginal references. and Pro 29:24; Num 5:21).
Hid from him - Either through forgetfulness or indifference, so that purification had been neglected. In such a case there had been a guilty negligence, and a sin-offering was required. On the essential connection between impurity and the sin-offering, see Lev 12:1.
Pronouncing - Idly speaking Psa 106:33. The reference is to an oath to do something uttered in recklessness or passion and forgotten as soon as uttered.
His trespass offering - Rather, as his forfeit, that is, whatever is due for his offence. The term "trespass-offering" is out of place here, since it has become the current designation for a distinct kind of sin-offering mentioned in the next section (see Lev 5:14 note).
A lamb or a kid of the goats - A sheep Lev 4:32 or a shaggy she-goat Lev 4:23.
See Lev 1:14-16; Lev 12:8. In the larger offerings of the ox and the sheep, the fat which was burned upon the altar represented, like the burnt-offering, the dedication of the worshipper; in this case, the same meaning was conveyed by one of the birds being treated as a distinct burnt-offering.
A lamb - One of the flock, either a sheep or a goat.
For his trespass, which he hath committed - As his forfeit for the sin he hath committed.
tenth part of an ephah i. e. - "the tenth deal;" probably less than half a gallon. See Lev 19:36 note. This sin-offering of meal was distinguished from the ordinary מנחה mı̂nchāh Lev 2:1 by the absence of oil and frankincense.
(This comment exends through Lev 6:7). The trespass-offerings as they are described in this section and in Lev 7:1-7, are clearly distinguished from the ordinary sin-offerings in these particulars:
(1) They were offered on account of offences which involved an injury to some person (it might be the Lord Himself) in respect to property. See Lev 5:16; Lev 6:4-5.
(2) they were always accompanied by a pecuniary fine equal to the value of the injury done, with the addition of one-fifth. Compare Num 5:5-8.
(3) the treatment of the blood was more simple. Compare Lev 4:5.
(4) the victim was a ram, instead of a female sheep or goat.
(5) there was no such graduation of offerings to suit the rank or circumstances of the worshipper as is set forth in Lev 4:3, Lev 4:32, etc.
Commit a trespass - Rather, here and in Lev 6:2, perpetrate a wrong. The word is different from that rendered trespass elsewhere in these chapters.
Through ignorance - Through inadvertence. See Lev 4:2 note.
In the holy things of the Lord - The reference is to a failure in the payment of firstfruits, tithes or fees of any kind connected with the public service of religion by which the sanctuary suffered loss; compare Num 5:6-8.
Shekel of the sanctuary - See Exo 38:24 note.
Though he wist it not - Ignorance of the Law, or even of the consequences of the act at the time that it was committed, was not to excuse him from the obligation to offer the sacrifice.