Notes on the Bible, by Albert Barnes, , at sacred-texts.com
4 Kings (2 Kings) 11:1
Athaliah, as wife of Joram and mother of Ahaziah, had guided both the internal and the external policy of the Jewish kingdom; she had procured the establishmeut of the worship of Baal in Judaea Kg2 8:18, Kg2 8:27, and had maintained a close alliance with the sister kingdom Kg2 8:29; Kg2 10:13. The revolution effected by Jehu touched her nearly. It struck away from her the support of her relatives; it isolated her religious system, severing the communication with Phoenicia; and the death of Ahaziah deprived her of her legal status in Judaea, which was that of queen-mother (the Kg1 15:13 note), and trausferred that position to the chief wife of her deceased son. Athaliah, instead of yielding to the storm, or merely standing on the defensive, resolved to become the assailant, and strike before any plans could be formed against her. In the absence of her son, hers was probably the chief anthority at Jerusalem. She used it to command the immediate destruction of all the family of David, already thinned by previous massacres Kg2 10:14; Ch2 21:4, Ch2 21:17, and then seized the throne.
4 Kings (2 Kings) 11:2
Jehosheba ... sister of Ahaziah - "Half-sister," according to Josephus - daughter of Joram, not by Athaliah, but by another wife. She was married to Jehoiada the high priest, and was thus in a position to save and conceal her nephew, Joash, who was only one year old (compare Kg2 11:3, Kg2 11:21).
In the bedchamber - literally, "in the chamber of mattresses" - probabIy a store-room in the palace in which mattresses were kept.
4 Kings (2 Kings) 11:3
And Athaliah did reign over the land - In these words the writer dismisses the entire reign of Athaliah, whereof he scorns to speak. We gather incidentally from Kg2 12:5-12, compared with Ch2 24:7, that Athaliah used her power to establish the exclusive worship of BaaI through the kingdom of Judah, and to crush that of Yahweh. She stopped the temple service, gave over the sacred vessels of the sanctuary to the use of the Baal priests, and employed the temple itself as a quarry from which materials might be taken for the construction of a great temple to Baal, which rose in the immediate neighborhood.
4 Kings (2 Kings) 11:4
See the marginal reference.
The captains - The word used here and in Kg2 11:19, הא־כרי ha-kârı̂y, designates a certain part of the royal guard, probably that which in the earlier times was known under the name of Cherethites Kg1 1:38. Others see in the term an ethnic name - "Carians," who seem certainly to have been much inclined to take service as mercenaries from an early date. Render the whole passage thus - "And in the seventh year Jehoiada sent and fetched the centurions of the Carians and the guardsmen (literally, 'runners, ' Kg2 10:25), etc."
4 Kings (2 Kings) 11:5
Five divisions of the guard under their five captains are distinguished here. Three of the five divisions "enter in" on the Sabbath; the other two "go forth" on the Sabbath Kg2 11:7. By the former phrase seems to be meant the mounting guard at the royal palace (the "king's house," where Athaliah then was); by the latter the serving of escort to the sovereign beyond the palace bounds. Jehoiada orders that of those whose business it would be to guard the palace on the ensuing Sabbath, one company or cohort should perform that task in the ordinary way, while another should watch the gate of Sur - or better, "the gate of the foundation" Ch2 23:5 - that by which the palace was usually quitted for the temple, and a third should watch another of the palace gates, called "the gate of the guard" (see Kg2 11:19). The two companies whose proper business it would be to serve as the royal escort beyond the palace walls, he orders to enter the temple, and surround the person of the young king.
That it be not broken down - The one word in the original text of which this is a translation occurs nowhere else; and its meaning is very doubtful.
Within the ranges - Rather, "within the ranks." If anyone tried to break through the soldiers' ranks to the king, or even to disturb their order, he was to be immediately slain.
4 Kings (2 Kings) 11:11
From the right corner ... - Rather, "from the right side of the temple buildings to the left side" - i. e., right across the temple court from the one side to the other, by the altar of burnt offerings, etc. This altar stood exactly in front of the temple-porch. Here the king was stationed; and before him and behind him, ("round about" him) stood the soldiers, drawn up several ranks deep across the entire court, just in front of the sacred building.
4 Kings (2 Kings) 11:12
The testimony - i. e., "The Book of the Law" which was kept in the ark of the covenant (Dent. 31:26). This Jehoiada placed ou the king's head at the moment of coronation, perhaps to indicate that the king was not to be above, but under, the direction of the Law of his country.
4 Kings (2 Kings) 11:14
By a pillar - Rather, "upon the pillar" probably a sort of stand, or pulpit, raised on a pillar. Under the later monarchy the Jewish king seems to have had a special place assigned him in the temple-court, from which on occasions he addressed the people (marginal references).
4 Kings (2 Kings) 11:15
Have her forth without the ranges - Rather, "Conduct her out between your ranks." Guard her, i. e., on all sides, that the people may not fall upon her and kill her as she passes through the court, thereby polluting the temple.
4 Kings (2 Kings) 11:16
And they laid hands on her - Most modern critics render - "and they gave her space," i. e., they cleared a way for her, and allowed her to walk out of the temple not only unharmed but untonched.
4 Kings (2 Kings) 11:17
A covenant - Rather, "the covenant," which either was already an established part of a coronation (marginal reference "k"), or at least became such afterward.
4 Kings (2 Kings) 11:18
A temple had been built to Baal at Jerusalem itself by Athaliah, Ahaziah, or Jehoram. According to Josephus, it was constructed in the reign of Jehoram. Its exact position is uncertain.
Images - The word used here is not the same as in Kg2 10:26, but a word which implies likeness. The Phoenicians had fashioned images, besides their unfashioned pillar-idols.
The priest appointed ... - The temple worship having been discontinued during Athaliah's rule, it devolved on Jehoiada now to re-establish it (see marginal reference). He had already summoned the Levites out of all the cities of Judah Ch2 23:2, and had made use of them in the events of the day. He therefore proceeded at once to assign the custody of the temple to a particular course, before conducting the young king to the palace.
4 Kings (2 Kings) 11:19
They conducted the king down from the temple hill, across the valley of the Tyropoeum, and up the opposite hill to the royal palace, entering it not by the "horse-gate" Kg2 11:16, where Athaliah had just been slain, but by the "gate of the guard" Kg2 11:6, which was probably the main gate of the palace on the eastern side (see Ch2 23:20).
4 Kings (2 Kings) 11:20
They slew Athaliah with the sword - This is one of the many little repetitions which mark the manner of the writer, and which generally contain some little point which has not been mentioned before (compare Kg2 11:16).