Notes on the Bible, by Albert Barnes, , at sacred-texts.com
This verse belongs in subject to the last chapter. It prohibits once more (compare Deu 15:21) that form of insult to God which consists in offering to Him a blemished sacrifice.
Any evil-favoredness - Render any evil thing. The reference is to the faults or maims enumerated in Lev 22:22-24.
Compare Deu 13:1 ff. Here special reference is made to the legal forms to be adopted, Deu 17:5-7. The sentence was to be carried into effect at "the gates" (compare Gen 19:1 note) of the town in which the crime was committed; because, as "all the people" were to take a part, an open space would be requisite for the execution. Note the typical and prophetical aspect of the injunction; compare Act 7:58; Heb 13:12.
The cases in question are such as the inferior judges did not feel able to decide satisfactorily, and which accordingly they remitted to their superiors (compare Exo 18:23-27).
The Supreme court Deu 17:9 is referred to in very general terms as sitting at the sanctuary Deu 17:8. "The judge" would no doubt usually be a layman, and thus the court would contain both an ecclesiastical and a civil element. Jehoshaphat Ch2 19:4-11 organized his judicial system very closely upon the lines here laid down.
No encouragement is given to the desire, natural in an Oriental people, for monarchical government; but neither is such desire blamed, as appears from the fact that conditions are immediately laid down upon which it may be satisfied. Compare the marginal references.
The king, like the judges and officers (compare Deu 16:18), is to be chosen by the people; but their choice is to be in accordance with the will of God, and to be made from among "their brethren." Compare Sa1 9:15; Sa1 10:24; Sa1 16:1; Kg1 19:16.
Thou mayest not set a stranger over thee - The Jews extended this prohibition to all offices whatsoever (compare Jer 30:21); and naturally attached the greatest importance to it: from where the significance of the question proposed to our Lord, "Is it lawful to give tribute to Caesar?" Mat 22:17. A Gentile head for the Jewish people, which it was a principal aim of the Law to keep special and distinct from others, was an anomaly.
The horse was not anciently used in the East for purposes of agriculture or traveling, but ordinarily for war only. He appears constantly in Scripture as the symbol and embodiment of fleshly strength and the might of the creature (compare Psa 20:7; Psa 33:16-17; Psa 147:10; Job 39:19 ff), and is sometimes significantly spoken of simply as "the strong one" (compare Jer 8:16). The spirit of the prohibition therefore is that the king of Israel must not, like other earthly potentates, put his trust in costly and formidable preparations for war (compare Hos 1:7).
Egypt was the principal source from where the nations of western Asia drew their supplies of this animal (compare Exo 14:5 ff; Kg1 10:28-29; Kg2 7:6); but contact, traffic, or alliance which would "cause the people to return to Egypt" would be to reverse that great and beneficent wonderwork of God which inaugurated the Mosaic covenant, the deliverance from the bondage of Egypt; and to bring about of set purpose that which God threatened Deu 28:68 as the most severe punishment for Israel's sin.
Multiplication of wives would lead to sensuality, and so to an apostasy no less fatal in effect than downright idolatry (compare Exo 34:16). This rule, like the others, abridges to the ruler of Israel liberties usually enjoyed without stint by the kings of the East. The restriction was in the days of Moses unprecedented; and demanded a higher standard in the king of Israel than was looked for among his equals in other nations.
Neither shall he greatly multiply to himself silver and gold - In this third prohibition, as in the other two, excess is forbidden. Vast accumulation of treasure could hardly be effected without oppression; nor when effected fail to produce pride and a "trust in uncertain riches" Ti1 6:17.
It is in striking consistency with the dignity which everywhere throughout the Mosaic legislation surrounds the chosen people of God, that even if they will be "like as all the nations about" Deu 17:14, and be governed by a king, care should nevertheless be taken that he shall be no Oriental despot. He is to be of no royal caste, but "one from among thy brethren" Deu 17:15; he is to bear himself as a kind of "primus inter pares," his heart "not being lifted up above his brethren" Deu 17:20; he is, like his subjects, to be bound by the fundamental laws and institutions of the nation, and obliged, as they were, to do his duty in his station of life with constant reference thereto. The spirit of the text is that of Mat 23:9.
A copy of this law - The whole Pentateuch, or, at any rate, the legal portion of the Pentateuch.
A book ... before the priests the Levites - Compare the marginal reference.