Notes on the Bible, by Albert Barnes, , at sacred-texts.com
2 Chronicles 28:1
This chapter is supplemental in character, The writer seems to assume that the narrative of Kings (marginal reference) is known, and is mainly anxious to add points which the author of that narrative has omitted.
2 Chronicles 28:2
Images for Baalim - Or, to serve as Baalim, i. e as representatives of the different forms or characters of the chief Phoenician deity.
2 Chronicles 28:3
Compare the Kg2 16:3 note.
2 Chronicles 28:4
He sacrificed also etc - Compare Kg2 16:4.
2 Chronicles 28:5
The two battles here mentioned, one with Rezin (king of Syria), and the other with Pekah (king of Israel) are additions to the narrative of the writer of Kings (marginal reference "g"). The events of the Syro-Israelite war were probably spread over several years.
2 Chronicles 28:6
The fearful loss here described may have been due to a complete defeat followed by panic.
2 Chronicles 28:7
Maaseiah was either an officer called "the king's son" (compare Kg1 22:26), or perhaps a son of Jotham, since Ahaz could hardly have had a son old enough to take part in the battle (compare Ch2 28:1).
Elkanah, as "second to the king," was probably the chief of the royal counselors.
2 Chronicles 28:9
Nothing more is known of this Oded. Compare Ch2 15:1.
He went out before the host - Rather, "He went out to meet the host," as the same phrase is translated in Ch2 15:2.
A rage that reacheth up to heaven - i. e. not merely an exceedingly great and violent rage, but one that has displeased God.
2 Chronicles 28:10
Are there not with you ... sins against the Lord? - The ten tribes had fallen away from the true faith far more completely and more hopelessly than the two. It was not for them to press hard against their erring brothers, and aggravate their punishment.
2 Chronicles 28:12
"Ephraim" is used herein the generic sense so common in the prophets, as synonymous with the ten tribes.
2 Chronicles 28:15
Jericho, which lies much farther from Samaria than many points of the territory of Judah, was perhaps selected because the captives had been carried off principally from this point; or because there may have been less danger of falling in with portions of Pekah's army on this than on the direct route.
2 Chronicles 28:17
The Edomites took advantage of the reverses of Ahaz, and were perhaps in league with Rezin (see Kg2 16:6 note). The pitilessness of Edom, and her readiness to turn against Judah in any severe distress, is noticed and sternly rebuked by the prophets (Amo 1:11; Eze 35:5; Oba 1:10-14, etc.).
2 Chronicles 28:18
Philistia also, eager to retaliate the blows she had received from Uzziah Ch2 26:6, seized her opportunity. Ajalon and Shocho were among the cities fortified by Rehoboam Ch2 11:7, Ch2 11:10; Beth-shemesh Jos 15:10 was famous as the scene of Amaziah's defeat Ch2 25:21. Gimzo, which is not elsewhere mentioned in Scripture has been probably identified with the modern Jimzu, a large village about 2 12 miles from Ludd (the ancient Lydda).
2 Chronicles 28:19
Ahaz king of Israel - An instance of the lax use of the word "Israel" Ch2 12:6; Ch2 21:2. It is simply equivalent to "king of Judah."
He made Judah naked - literally, "he had caused licentiousness in Judah" - i. e. he had allowed Judah to break loose from all restraints of true religion, and to turn to any idolatry that they preferred Ch2 28:2-4. In this and in the following expression there is implied an apostasy resembling the unfaithfulness of a wife.
2 Chronicles 28:20
Tilgath-pilneser - This form of the name is doubly corrupt. See the properly Hebraized form in Kg2 15:29.
Distressed him, but strengthened him not - This statement, and that at the end of Ch2 28:21, is supplemental to, and not contradictory of, Kg2 16:9. Here it is the writer's object to note that the material assistance rendered by Tiglath-pileser to Ahab, was no real "help" or "strength," but rather a cause of "distress."
2 Chronicles 28:23
His adoption of the Syrian gods, Hadad, Rimmon, and others, as objects of worship, no doubt preceded the destruction of Damascus by the Assyrians Kg2 16:9.
Israel - i. e. "Judah;" so in Ch2 28:27. Compare Ch2 28:19.
2 Chronicles 28:24
Compare Kg2 16:17 note. The temple-worship was suspended, the lamps put out, and the doors shut, to prevent the priests from entering. The Jews still celebrate a yearly fast in commemoration of this time of affliction.
Altars - As the one altar for sacrifice, which alone the Law allowed, symbolized the doctrine of one God, so these many altars spoke unmistakeably of the all-embracing polytheism affected by Ahaz.