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THE matters affecting and regulating the duration of life have now been disposed of; and it becomes proper to enter into further particulars, commencing, in due order, with the figure and conformation of the body; because Nature forms and moulds the body before she inspires it with a soul. In fact, the body, in its materiality, is endowed with suitable constitutional properties begotten with it, and almost apparent from its very birth; but the soul afterwards, and by degrees, develops

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the appropriate qualities which it derives from the primary cause, and which become known much later than external attributes, and in process of time only.

In regard to the body, therefore, it is in all cases requisite to observe the oriental horizon, and to ascertain what planets may preside or have dominion over it, and also to pay particular attention to the Moon. For, from both these places, 1 and from their rulers, as well as from the natural formation and contemperament appertaining to every species of the human race, and also from the figure ascribed to those fixed stars which may be co-ascending, the conformation of the body is to be inferred. The planets possessing dominion have the chief influence, and the proper qualities of their places co-operate with them. And, in order to simplify these instructions, and as the planets are first to be treated of, each planet is individually to be considered as follows, viz.:

Saturn, when oriental, acts on the personal figure by producing a yellowish complexion and a good constitution; with black and curled hair, a broad and stout chest, eyes of ordinary quality, and a proportionate size of body, the temperament of which is compounded principally of moisture and cold. Should he be occidental, he makes the personal figure black or dark, thin and small, with scanty hair on the head; the body without hair, but well shaped; the eyes black or dark; and the bodily temperament consisting chiefly of dryness and cold.

Jupiter ruling, when oriental, makes the person white or fair, with a clear complexion, moderate growth of hair, and large eyes, and of good and dignified stature; the temperament being chiefly of heat and moisture. When occidental, he still causes a fair complexion, but not of equal clearness; and he produces long straight hair, with baldness on the forehead or on the crown of the head; and he then also gives a middle stature to the body, with a temperament of more moisture.

Mars, ascending, gives a fair ruddiness to the person, with large size, a healthy constitution, blue or grey eyes, a sturdy figure, and a moderate growth of hair, with a temperament principally of heat and dryness. When occidental, he makes the complexion simply ruddy, and the personal figure of moderate stature, with small eyes; the body without hair, and the hair of the head light or red, and straight; the bodily temperament being chiefly dry.

Venus operates in a manner similar to that of Jupiter, but, at the same time, more becomingly and more gracefully; producing qualities of a nature more applicable to women and female beauty, such as softness, juiciness, and greater delicacy. She also peculiarly makes the eyes beautiful, and renders them of an azure tint.

Mercury, when oriental, makes the personal figure of a yellowish complexion, and of stature proportionate and well-shaped, with small

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eyes and a moderate growth of hair; and the bodily temperament is chiefly hot. If occidental, he gives a complexion white or fair, but not altogether clear; straight, dark hair, a thin and slight figure, some squint or defect in the eyes, and a long visage 1 faintly red; the temperament being chiefly dry.

The Sun and Moon, when configurated with any one of the planets, also co-operate: the Sun adds a greater nobleness to the figure, and increases the healthiness of the constitution; and the Moon, especially when holding or delaying her separation, 2 generally contributes better proportion and greater delicacy of figure, and greater moisture of temperament; but, at the same time, her influence in this latter particular is adapted to the proper ratio of her illumination; as referred to in the modes of temperament mentioned in the beginning of this treatise. 3

Again, should the planets be matutine, and fully conspicuous, 4 they will cause the body to be large; if in their first station, they will make it strong and vigorous; if they should precede or be in advance, it will be disproportionate; if in their second station, it will be weaker, and, if vespertine, altogether mean and subservient to evil treatment and oppression. At the same time, the places of the planets, 5 as has been already said, co-operate especially in producing the shape of the personal figure, and contribute also towards the temperament.

And further, it is the general tendency of the quadrant comprised between the vernal equinox and the summer tropic to produce good complexions, advantageous stature, fine constitutions, and fine eyes; with a temperament abounding in heat and moisture. The quadrant from the summer tropic to the autumnal equinox tends to produce an ordinary complexion, proportionate stature, a healthy constitution, large eyes, a stout person, with curled hair, and a temperament abounding in heat and dryness. The quadrant from the autumnal equinox to the winter tropic causes yellowish complexions, slender, thin, and sickly persons, with a moderate growth of hair, fine eyes, and a temperament abundantly dry and cold. The other quadrant, from the winter tropic to the vernal equinox, gives a dark complexion, proper stature, straight hair on the head and none on the body, a goodly figure, and a temperament abounding in cold and moisture.

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To speak, however, more particularly, all constellations of human form, both those within and those without the zodiac, act in favour of giving a handsome shape to the body, and due proportion to the figure; while those not of human form vary its due proportions, and incline it towards their own shape; assimilating it, in some measure, to their own peculiarities, either by enlarging or diminishing its size, by giving it additional strength or weakness, or by otherwise improving or disfiguring it. Thus, for example, Leo, Virgo, and Sagittarius enlarge the person; and Pisces, Cancer, and Capricorn tend to make it diminutive; and thus, again, the upper and anterior parts of Aries, Taurus, and Leo increase its strength and their lower and posterior parts render it weaker: while, on the other hand, Sagittarius, Scorpio, and Gemini act conversely; for their anterior parts produce greater debility, and their posterior parts greater vigour. In like manner, Virgo, Libra, and Sagittarius contribute to render the person handsome and well-proportioned; and Scorpio, Pisces, and Taurus incline it to be misshapen and disfigured.

The other constellations 1 also operate on similar principles; and all these influences it is necessary to bear in mind, in order that the peculiar properties, observed in their joint temperament, may be so compounded as to authorize an inference therefrom, concerning the form and temperament of the body.


101:1 That of the ascendant, and that of the Moon.

102:1 The original word is (in the accusative plural) αιγοηους, which Allatius has rendered, by "pedibus caprinis," goat-footed, as if it were compounded of αιξ capra and πους pes; but the preferable derivation seems to be from αιξ and ωψ vultus; meaning "goat-faced."

102:2 From any one of the said planets.

102:3 Vide Chap. VIII, Book I.

102:4 The Greek is ποιουμενοι φασεις; literally "making apparition"; but the subsequent context seems to require the meaning I have adopted.

102:5 The parts of the signs in which the planets are posited.

103:1 For the operative qualities of the other constellations, vide Chapters X and XI, Book I.

Next: Chapter XVII. The Hurts, Injuries, and Diseases of the Body